Israel / Palestine Timeline
[Target for substantial completion is 12/31/2026]
Methodology (click here)

This information is in a very rough first phase of data gathering, and sources and data will be refined as the project commences to the second phase. Wikipedia and Ducksters.com references, which are placeholders for now, will be noted in red.

The Project: There have been Israeli and Palestinian issues for many years with difficult and disastrous results for both sides. Complicating those issues are the various Palestinian factions in their own ranks, and various Israeli factions sometimes at odds with one another.

Attempting to set politics aside, we decided to build a timeline of historical events seemingly related to the Israeli / Palestinian issues.

Column A shows the date of an event and its source. Column B briefly summarizes the event.

Israel - Palestine Timeline:

A.B.
Event Date(s)Event
110,000 BCE (circa)
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“The region of Palestine is among the earliest sites of human habitation in the world. Archaeological evidence suggests a hunter-gatherer community living a nomadic existence in the region pre-10,000 BCE. In the Early Bronze Age, permanent settlements were founded and agricultural communities developed. Trade was initiated with other regions in the Near East and, because of its location between the cities of Mesopotamia and those of Arabia and Egypt, Palestine became an important trading hub and attracted the attention of Sargon the Great (r. 2334-2279 BCE) who absorbed the region into his Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BCE.”
23000 BCE (circa)
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“Syrian and Palestinian religion, beliefs of Syria and Palestine between 3000 and 300 BCE. These religions are usually defined by the languages of those who practiced them: e.g., Amorite, Hurrian, Ugaritic, Phoenician, Aramaic, and Moabite. … Internally, the landscape of Syria and Palestine is broken into many different regions. In consequence, the population was generally divided among many polities, each of which had its own official religion. Externally, Syria-Palestine formed a land bridge between the great civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt and faced westward across the Mediterranean Sea toward the cultures of the Aegean. Syria and Palestine were subject to influences from these cultures and in turn contributed to them. …”
32900 BCE (circa)
[welcometopalestine.com, accessed 2024]
“3,000 – 1,200 BCE … The Bronze Age … During the Bronze Age (c. 3,000 to 1200 BCE) independent city-states were established in what was then called Canaan. The Canaanites and their descendants the Phoenicians were seafarers who established colonies in Carthage (Tunis) and Cadiz, in modern day Spain. From 1550 they became vassals to the Egyptian New Kingdom until the 1178 BCE Battle of Canaan. They spoke Semitic languages. Semitic languages derive from Afro-asiatic ones and originate in the Middle East. Modern examples are spoken by over 500 million people and include Arabic, Amharic, Tigrinya, Hebrew, Aramaic and Maltese. They have been found in ancient texts from 2900 BCE and 2500 BCE. Several scholars think that the Israelites emerged peacefully from social transformation within the peoples of the central hill country part of Canaan.”
42083 BCE (circa)
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2023]
“The affluence of the Akkadian Empire at this time encouraged the growth of urban centers throughout the region and Palestine flourished until Akkad fell to the invading armies of the Gutians, Elamites, and Amorites in c. 2083 BCE. After this, the cities were abandoned and the people returned to a rural, agrarian lifestyle, possibly due to overpopulation, though the reasons are unclear.”
52040 BCE circa
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“The Hyksos, known in ancient Egyptian inscriptions only as ‘foreign kings’, were able to use Palestine to gain a foothold in the Delta region of Lower Egypt toward the end of Egypt’s Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) and establish themselves as a political entity at Avaris.”
62000 BCE (circa)
[cotf.edu, accessed 2024]
“Jews have lived in the area called Palestine since about 2000 BC.”
72000 BCE (circa)
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
“Jewish history began about 4,000 years ago (c. 17th century BCE) with the patriarchs – Abraham, his son Isaac, and grandson Jacob. Documents unearthed in Mesopotamia, dating back to 2000-1500 BCE, corroborate aspects of their nomadic way of life as described in the Bible. The Book of Genesis relates how Abraham was summoned from Ur of the Chaldeans to Canaan to bring about the formation of a people with belief in the One God. When a famine spread through Canaan, Jacob (Israel), his 12 sons, and their families settled in Egypt, where their descendants were reduced to slavery and pressed into forced labor.”
81725 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“In the Middle Bronze Age (c. 2000-c.1550 BCE), the people again embraced urbanization and trade flourished. … Egypt’s influence is evident in the pattern of burial rituals in the region which closely mirror Egypt’s in terms of the type of grave goods included in the tombs. This partnership continued to benefit both Egypt and the Palestine region until the arrival of the Semitic peoples known as the Hyksos in c. 1725 BCE.”
91700 BCE (circa)

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]

“Abraham settles in the land of Israel (Canaan)”
101570 BCE (circa)
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Following the expulsion of the Hyksos, the cities of Palestine were rebuilt and Ahmose I absorbed the region into the newly formed Egyptian Empire (also referred to as the New Kingdom, c. 1570-c.1069 BCE). Ahmose I wanted to make sure that no other foreign power would infiltrate Egypt’s border and so created a buffer-zone around Egypt’s borders which was enlarged by later pharaohs to form their empire.”
111500 BCE

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]

“Joseph is sold into slavery. His family join him in Egypt.”
121479 BCE (circa)
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Some of the most famous Egyptian pharaohs ruled during the New Kingdom and patronized Palestine in trade and through building projects. Hatshepsut (r. 1479-1458 BCE), Thutmose III (r. 1458-1425 BCE), Amenhotep III (r. 1386-1353 BCE), and Ramesses the Great (r. 1279-1213 BCE), among many others, encouraged trade in the region and improved its infrastructure.”
131446 BCE (circa)
[biblearchaeologyreport.com, accessed 2024]
“This inscription is also evidence that points to an early date for the exodus. According to a literal reading of 1 Kings 6:1, Solomon began building the temple in the 480th year after the people of Israel came out of the land of Egypt, placing the exodus around 1446 B.C.”
141400 BCE (circa)

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“The Hebrews are enslaved by the Egyptians.”
151300 BCE (circa)
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
“After 400 years of bondage, the Israelites were led to freedom by Moses who, according to the biblical narrative, was chosen by God to take his people out of Egypt and back to the Land of Israel promised to their forefathers (c.13th-12th centuries BCE). They wandered for 40 years in the Sinai desert, where they were forged into a nation and received the Torah (Pentateuch), which included the Ten Commandments, and gave form and content to their monotheistic faith.
The exodus from Egypt (c.1300 BCE) left an indelible imprint on the national memory of the Jewish people and became a universal symbol of liberty and freedom. Every year Jews celebrate Pesach (Passover), Shavuot (Pentecost) and Succot (Feast of Tabernacles), commemorating events of that time.
During the next two centuries, the Israelites conquered most of the Land of Israel and became farmers and craftsmen; a degree of economic and social consolidation followed. Periods of relative peace alternated with times of war, during which the people rallied behind leaders known as judges, chosen for their political and military skills as well as for their leadership qualities.”
161300 BCE

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]

“Moses leads the Hebrews out of Egypt.”
171276 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Palestine in the ancient world was part of the region known as Canaan where the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah were located. The term `Palestine’ was originally a designation of an area of land in southern Canaan which the people known as the Philistines occupied a very small part of. The Canaanites, Canaanite-Phoenicians, and the Israelites, among others, established themselves in the area much earlier. The Philistines are thought to have come to the area toward the end of the Bronze Age c. 1276 BCE and established themselves on the southern coastal plain of the Mediterranean Sea in an area afterwards known as Philistia.”
181250 BCE (circa)
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Israel was the region colonized by Abram (later Abraham), developed by his son Isaac and grandson Jacob, and later allegedly conquered by the Hebrew General Joshua around 1250 BCE, following the Exodus from Egypt under Moses.”
191200 BCE (circa)

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]

“The Hebrews arrive in Israel.”
201080 BCE (circa)
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“At some point after the alleged invasion by general Joshua, however, the Israelites are firmly established in Palestine and, by c. 1080 BCE, the Kingdom of Israel is founded in the north. Israel would flourish as a united kingdom until after the death of King Solomon (c. 965-931 BCE) when it split in two as the Kingdom of Israel with its capital at Samaria in the north and the Kingdom of Judah with the capital at Jerusalem in the south. Throughout the reigns of the early Israelite kings, and later, the Philistines are repeatedly referenced in the Bible as their sworn enemies.”
211030 BCE
[cotf.edu, accessed 2024]
“The first Jewish monarchy was founded in 1030 BC under King Saul, and furthered under Kings David and Solomon.”
221020 BCE (circa)
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
“The first king, Saul (c.1020 BCE), bridged the period between loose tribal organization and the setting up of a full monarchy under his successor, David.”
231004 BCE (circa)
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
“King David (c.1004-965 BCE) established his kingdom as a major power in the region by successful military expeditions, including the final defeat of the Philistines, as well as through a network of friendly alliances with nearby kingdoms. Consequently, his authority was recognized from the borders of Egypt and the Red Sea to the banks of the Euphrates. At home, he united the 12 Israelite tribes into one kingdom and placed his capital, Jerusalem, and the monarchy at the center of the country’s national life. Biblical tradition depicts David as a poet and musician, with verses ascribed to him appearing in the Book of Psalms.”
241000 BCE

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“David becomes King of Israel.”
25965 BCE (circa)
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
“David was succeeded by his son Solomon (c.965-930 BCE) who further strengthened the kingdom. Through treaties with neighboring kings, reinforced by politically motivated marriages, Solomon ensured peace for his kingdom and made it equal among the great powers of the age. He expanded foreign trade and promoted domestic prosperity by developing major enterprises, such as copper mining and metal smelting, while building new towns and fortifying old ones of strategic and economic importance. Crowning his achievements was the building of the Temple in Jerusalem, which became the center of the Jewish people’s national and religious life. The Bible attributes to Solomon the Book of Proverbs and the Song of Songs.”
26950 BCE
[cotf.edu, accessed 2024]
“In 950 BC, Solomon built the First Temple. In 586 King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia captured Jerusalem, destroyed the temple and forced the people into exile.”
27930 BCE (circa)
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
“The end of Solomon’s rule was marred by discontent on the part of the populace, which had to pay heavily for his ambitious schemes. At the same time, preferential treatment of his own tribe embittered the others, which resulted in growing antagonism between the monarchy and the tribal separatists.
After Solomon’s death (930 BCE), open insurrection led to the breaking away of the 10 northern tribes and division of the country into a northern kingdom, Israel, and a southern kingdom, Judah, the latter on the territory of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin.
The Kingdom of Israel, with its capital Samaria, lasted more than 200 years under 19 kings, while the Kingdom of Judah was ruled from Jerusalem for 400 years by an equal number of kings of the lineage of David. The expansion of the Assyrian and Babylonian empires brought first Israel and later Judah under foreign control.”
28922 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“After Solomon died (922 BCE), he was succeeded by Rehoboam … Though the Davidic monarchy continued in Judah until the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE, the monarchial situation in Israel was one of constant turmoil and confusion, except for the periods of a few dynasties. Jeroboam I of Israel (reigned 922–901 BCE) attempted to bring about religious and political reforms.”
29884 BCE (circa)
[.jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]
“Samaria (Heb. Shomron, modern Sebaste) is a city established as the capital of the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of the Ephraimite ruler Omri c. 884 B.C.E. on a mountain ridge 12 miles northwest of Shechem on the central route from Jerusalem to Galilee. The territory controlled by the city was eventually named for it.”
30876 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“With the dynasty of Omri (c. 876–842), the prophetic movement begins to assume a position of tremendous importance in Israel and Judah. Omri (reigned c. 876–869) reestablished Israel’s economic and military significance among the Syrian and Palestinian minor kingdoms, so much so that years after his death the Assyrians referred to the northern kingdom as ‘the land of Omri.'”
31853 BCE
[military-history.fandom.com, accessed 2024]
“853 BCE: The Battle of Qarqar in which Jerusalem’s forces were likely involved in an indecisive battle against Shalmaneser III of Neo-Assyria (Jehoshaphat of Judah was allied to Ahab of the Israel according to the Bible).”
32745 BCE (circa)
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]=
“Tiglath-pileser III (flourished 8th century BC) was the king of Assyria (745–727 BC) who inaugurated the last and greatest phase of Assyrian expansion. He subjected Syria and Palestine to his rule, and later (729 or 728) he merged the kingdoms of Assyria and Babylonia.”
33734 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“The Assyrian king’s skill is best seen in his handling of affairs in Syria and Palestine. From an independent military headquarters he bypassed the rebels’ ringleader at Damascus, won over most coastal cities, cut off supplies of timber from Egypt, and sent a force to Ashkelon and Gaza. In 734 the border with Egypt was sealed. The tribes of Ammon, Edom, and Moab, who, with Israel, had attacked Ahaz of Judah—a vassal of Assyria—now had to pay tribute. Over the next two years Tiglath-pileser systematically broke the power of Damascus. Israel was made subject through the assassination of Pekah (Pakaha) and his replacement by a pro-Assyrian vassal Hoshea (Ausi). Galilee was made part of an adjacent province.”
34732 BCE
[ucl.ac.uk, accessed 2024]
“From an Assyrian perspective, however, the invasion of Israel was part of a much wider military offensive designed to establish political and economic dominance over the routes across the Syrian Desert to the harbours of the Mediterranean. … Thereafter, the war was thus confined to the north of modern Israel and what is today southwestern Syria. It culminated in the Assyrian siege of Damascus and the conquest of this great city in 732 BC. The annexation of the northern part of the kingdom of Israel followed.”
35732 BCE
[ucl.ac.uk, accessed 2024]
“The Biblical account of the invasion of 732 BC differs from the Assyrian sources above all in the motivation identified as driving the Assyrian attack and conquest. According to the Bible, the invaders were brought to Israel by Ahaz, king of Judah, who asked Tiglath-pileser for a military intervention against Israel and Damascus … From a Judaean perspective, therefore, the Assyrian invasion of Israel was the direct consequence of Judah’s vassal treaty with Assyria. In exchange for his loyalty and his tribute, king Ahaz was able to summon his overlord Tiglath-pileser who was bound by the treaty to protect his vassal against his enemies’ aggression.”
36722 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“In 722 BCE, the region was overrun by the Assyrians and the Kingdom of Israel was destroyed. At this same time, the Philistines were subdued completely and lost their autonomy.”
37722 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“In 722 BCE, the Assyrian Empire conquered and destroyed the Northern Kingdom of Israel. This was when ten of the twelve tribes of Israel were lost to history. In 587 BCE, the Babylonian Empire conquered and destroyed the Southern Kingdom of Judah and Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem.”
38705 BCE (circa
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“The Neo-Assyrian Empire claimed Palestine and their king Sennacherib (r.705-681 BCE) launched a campaign in the region in 703 BCE. Although he failed to take Jerusalem, he succeeded in making Judah a vassal state.”
39612 BCE (circa
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“The Assyrians held the region until the fall of their empire in 612 BCE to a coalition led by Babylonians and Medes and, shortly after, the Babylonians invaded Palestine in 598 BCE and sacked Jerusalem, destroyed the Temple of Solomon, and took the leading citizens among the Israelites back to Babylon (a period in Jewish history known as the Babylonian Captivity). They returned between 589-582 BCE and destroyed the rest of Judah, scattering the Philistines at the same time.”
40609 BCE
[answersresearchjournal.org, accessed 2024]
“Extending this to 609 BC for the biblical connection (Necho kills Josiah) adds a further 55 years, making 190 years. During this whole period Israel was in the later divided monarchy (archaeologically continuing in the Iron Age).”
41605 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“… in 605 the Neo-Babylonian crown prince, Nebuchadrezzar, soundly defeated Necho’s troops and forced their withdrawal from Syria and Palestine. Egypt itself was threatened in 601, but Necho repelled the enemy and continued to promote anti-Babylonian coalitions in Syria and Palestine.”
42598 BCE (circa)
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Judah was destroyed by the Babylonians in 598-582 BCE and the most influential citizens of the region taken to Babylon.”
43587 BCE
[study.com, accessed 2024]
“The siege of Jerusalem, beginning in 587 BCE, was ordered by Nebuchadnezzar II, the king of Babylon. This siege lasted about a year and was the result of the Kingdom of Judah defecting from the control of the Babylonian Empire.”
44586 BCE (circa)
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
“Religious sages and charismatic figures, who were perceived as being endowed with a divine gift of revelation, preached during the period of the monarchy until a century after the destruction of Jerusalem (586 BCE).”
45586 BCE

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]

“Babylon, ruled by Nebuchadnezzar II, conquers Judah and destroys the Temple and takes many Israelites captive.”
46530 BCE
[cotf.edu, accessed 2024]
“In 538 the Persian king Cyrus the Great gained control and allowed the Jews to return.”
47515 BCE
[cotf.edu, accessed 2024]
“The Second Temple was completed in 515. Alexander the Great of Macedon (Greece) defeated the Persians (333) and established control of Egypt and Palestine.”
48322 BCE

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]

“The Greeks, led by Alexander the Great, conquer Israel along with all of Persia and Egypt.”
49282 BCE
[livius.org, accessed 4/27/2024]
Scythopolis (Beth Shean) “The city was refounded by Ptolemy II Philadelphus (r.282-246 BCE), who called it Scythopolis, ‘city of the Scythians’. Because Coele Syria, as this part of the Ptolemaic Empire was called, was contested with the Seleucid Empire, it is possible that Scythopolis had a military function and the Scythians were mercenaries. Another Ptolemaic settlement of this period was Philadelphia (Amman in Jordan).”
50218 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“Antiochus III the Great (born 242 BCE—died 187, near Susa, Iran) was a Seleucid king of the Hellenistic Syrian Empire from 223 BCE to 187, who rebuilt the empire in the East but failed in his attempt to challenge Roman ascendancy in Europe and Asia Minor. … Antiochus was now free to conduct what has been called the Fourth Syrian War (219–216), during which he gained control of the important eastern Mediterranean sea ports of Seleucia-in-Pieria, Tyre, and Ptolemais. In 218 he held Coele Syria (Lebanon), Palestine, and Phoenicia. … Antiochus invaded Coele Syria, defeated the Ptolemaic general Scopas at Panion near the source of the Jordan River in the year 200, gained control of Palestine, and granted special rights to the Jewish temple state. “
51175 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Antiochus III’s son and successor, Seleucus IV Philopator (r. 187-175 BCE), continued the efforts to pay off the war debt to the extent that this became his primary focus. He was assassinated in 175 BCE and rule passed to Antiochus III’s other son, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (r. 175-164 BCE).”
52175 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“At this same time (c. 168 BCE), a simmering conflict was going on in the Seleucid province of Judea between conservative Jews who sought to maintain their religious and cultural heritage and Hellenized Jews who had adopted Seleucid mannerisms and customs. This tension finally came to a head in a dispute over the position of the high priest of the temple in Jerusalem. The high priest had traditionally come from the Oniad family and in c. 175 BCE, one of its members, Joshua, paid Antiochus IV to promote him to the position and depose his brother, Onias III, the rightful priest. Antiochus IV agreed, Joshua then Hellenized his name to Jason, and encouraged Greek customs in the city and around the temple, notably building a gymnasium – where people exercised in the nude which was considered shameful to the Jews – in the holy precinct.”
53172 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“Antiochus’s hellenizing policies brought him into conflict with the prosperous non-Greek temple organizations, and particularly with the Jews. Since Antiochus III’s reign the Jews had enjoyed extensive autonomy under their high priest. They were divided into two parties, the orthodox Hasideans (Pious Ones) and a reform party that favoured Hellenism. For financial reasons Antiochus supported the reform party and, in return for a considerable sum, permitted the high priest, Jason, to build a gymnasium in Jerusalem and to introduce the Greek mode of educating young people. In 172, for an even bigger tribute, he appointed Menelaus in place of Jason. In 169, however, while Antiochus was campaigning in Egypt, Jason conquered Jerusalem—with the exception of the citadel—and murdered many adherents of his rival Menelaus. When Antiochus returned from Egypt in 167 he took Jerusalem by storm and enforced its Hellenization. The city forfeited its privileges and was permanently garrisoned by Syrian soldiers.”
54169 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“Antiochus forestalled an Egyptian expedition to Palestine by invading Egypt. He defeated the Egyptians between Pelusium and Mount Kasion, conquered Pelusium, and in 169 occupied Egypt with the exception of Alexandria, the capital. Ptolemy VI was Antiochus’ nephew—Antiochus’ sister, Cleopatra I, had married Ptolemy V—and Antiochus contented himself with ruling Egypt as Ptolemy’s guardian, giving Rome no excuse for intervention. The citizens of Alexandria, however, appealed to Ptolemy VIII, the brother of Ptolemy VI, and to his sister Cleopatra II to form a rival government. Disturbances in Palestine forced Antiochus to return to Syria, but he safeguarded his access to Egypt with a strong garrison in Pelusium.”
55168 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Antiochus III had continued Seleucus I’s respect for the religious customs of all the people of the empire but Antiochus IV had no such regard. When Jason sent a messenger, Menelaus, to Antiochus IV with a sum of money, Menelaus offered the king more to depose Jason and choose him as High Priest and Antiochus IV agreed to this easily. Menelaus took control of the temple but Jason raised an armed group of supporters and attacked. Antiochus IV, never known for his patience or consideration, then claimed that the temple should be dedicated to him and decreed sacrifices made there would be in his honor.
This action prompted the Maccabean Revolt (c. 168/167 to c.160 BCE), led by Judas Maccabaeus, to restore Judaism and rededicate the temple, an event commemorated in the present day by the festival of Hanukah. Antiochus IV was unable to restore order after causing the chaos, dying in 163 BCE and leaving the problems of the rise of the Hasmonean Dynasty in Judea and the ever-shrinking empire to his successors.”
56168 BCE
[PDF dtic.mil, accessed 2024]
“In 168 BC, Antiochus had again attacked Egypt and was on the verge of capturing Alexandria until Roman intervention forced him to abandon this pursuit and return home. While he was away, rumors began circulating in Judea that Antiochus was dead and set off revolts in several cities including Jerusalem. Upon his return he recaptured Jerusalem and as a punitive measure established a foreign colony on the Acra in Jerusalem. The foreigners combined with the extreme Jewish Hellenists of Menelaus now controlled the city of Jerusalem and began a process of depriving it of its religious character. The foreigners brought with them their pagan gods and openly practiced idolatry while Menelaus the High Priest did nothing to stop them. The upper classes of Jewish society hoped through hellenization to move Judea into the modern world. Inevitably there would be clash because the more Judea was hellenized the less Jewish it would become. The schism developed in Jewish society as the Hasidim representing the devout lower-class Jews fled the growing secularism in Jerusalem and took up residence in the rural areas of the north and northwest.”
57167 BCE
[quizlet.com, accessed 2024]
“Antiochus IV infamously outlaws Judaism and erects a pagan altar in the Jerusalem temple; (the altar is completed Kislev 15, 167; first sacrifice 25 Kislev 167); the walls of Jerusalem are dismantled and a strong fortress (called the Akra) is built in Jerusalem for Syrian troops; Pious Jews are slaughtered. Maccabean Rebellion begins at Modein, led by Mattathias and his five military-aged sons.”
58166 BCE
[encyclopedia.com, accessed 2024]
“Judas Maccabee (166–160 B.C.). When Judas took over the leadership of the Jewish resistance in 166 b.c., there was no army; there were no supplies, no weapons, and no plans. When he died in battle six years later, his name was a byword throughout the Near East. He had formed a close-knit, hard-hitting guerrilla army, armed them with the weapons of defeated Syrian troops, repulsed a series of Syrian armies sent against him, won back Jerusalem and the Temple, and re-established the daily sacrifices. He had set the stage for the eventual return of religious and political freedom to Judea.”
5912/25/165 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Judah was severely outnumbered. However, the familiarity of Judea was a huge advantage for the Jewish army. Using the slight hills and the superior knowledge of the area, they outmanoeuvred the Seleucids and slowly they picked them off. Finally, they came to battle. Judah had gathered another 7000 Jewish rebels, but they were still outmanned by at least five to one. As Judah stood there looking at the masses, so the story goes, he prayed to God for victory. The Jewish people overcame the massive difference in manpower to secure an almost impossible victory over the Seleucid Empire and over Antiochus.
After the defeat, Antiochus’ armies were devastated. They met again when Judah’s army was at the gates of Jerusalem, but it was a much shorter battle. The Seleucids were bereft of hope as Judah drove the enemy out of the Holy City. The Jewish army had defeated Lysias. When Judah and his brothers went to the Temple, he saw the destruction and defilement that Antiochus caused upon it and was overwhelmed by grief (I Maccabees 4:36-40). On 25 December 165 BCE, after months of work clearing and cleaning, the Temple was finally rededicated to God. Their celebrations continued for eight days as is known to this day as the celebration of Hanukkah.”
60165 BCE
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
“In 165 BCE, a popular revolt – led by Mattathias, an elderly priest from the town of Modi’in (east of Lod), and his five sons – broke out against Seleucid rule. Mattathias died soon thereafter, and was succeeded by his third son, Judah, also known as Judah Maccabee.”
61164 BCE
[jewishvirtuallibrary.org accessed 2024]
“In 164 BCE, Jerusalem was recaptured by the Maccabees and the Temple purified, an event that gave birth to the holiday of Chanukah.”
62164 BCE
[encyclopedia.com, accessed 2024]
“When Antiochus IV died in the autumn of 164 b.c., Lysias seized the government in the name of Antiochus V, the nine-year-old son of Antiochus IV. On December 14 of that same year, Judas purified and rededicated the Temple at Jerusalem. In the following summer, he was able to extend his influence in Palestine by rescuing faithful Jews in Galilee and Galaad, and by punishing pro-Hellenistic Jews throughout the land (1 Mc 5).”
6312/164 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“In December 164 BCE, three years after Antiochus had defiled it, Judas recaptured Jerusalem, all except the Acra. Judas then had ‘blameless priests’ cleanse the Holy Place and erect a new altar of unhewn stones. They then reconsecrated the sanctuary on December 24 (Kislev 25 in the Hebrew calendar). The Hebrew word for this act, Hanukkah (‘Dedication’), is the name still used for the Jewish eight-day Festival of Lights that commemorates the event, which begins on Kislev 25 in the Jewish religious year.”
64164 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“On Antiochus’ death in 164 BCE, the Seleucids offered the Jews freedom of worship, but Judas continued the war, hoping to free his nation politically as well as religiously. Although he himself was killed two years later, his younger brothers took over the fight, finally securing the independence of Judaea.”
65163 BCE
[encyclopedia.com, accessed 2024]
“In the autumn of 163 b.c. Judas besieged the Syrian citadel in Jerusalem, intending to rid Judea of all Syrian influence. Forced into action by Judas’s actions, Lysias and the young King came from Antioch with a large army and besieged Judas’s base of operations at Bethsura, forcing Judas to quit the siege of the citadel. When Judas came south to assist the garrison at Bethsura, his army met the Syrians at Bethzacharam, but was forced back to Jerusalem, where refuge was taken in the fortress of the Temple. When Bethsura fell, Lysias’s army besieged the Temple fortress. Fortunately for Judas, Lysias was forced to make peace when news arrived that Philip, the rival regent who had been designated by Antiochus IV on his deathbed, was advancing toward Antioch. Lysias successfully disposed of Philip’s threat, but was later executed, along with Antiochus V, by Demetrius I Soter (161–150 b.c.), nephew of Antiochus IV (1 Mc6.17–7.50).”
66161 BCE

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Judas Maccabeus is killed in battle and his army is routed.”
67153 BCE
[jewishencyclopedia.com, accessed 2024]
“On the Feast of Tabernacles in 153 Jonathan [Son of Mattathias; leader of the Jews in the Maccabean wars from 161 to 143 B.C. He is called also Apphus] put on the high priest’s garments and officiated for the first time.”
68145 BCE

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Seleucid ruler Demetrius II Nicator lets Judea annex the three southern Samarian districts Lydda, Aphairema, and Ramathaim.”
69136 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“The Kingdom of Israel occupied that part of the land on the Mediterranean Sea known as the Levant which corresponds roughly to the State of Israel of modern times. The region was known, historically, as part of Canaan, as Phoenicia, as Palestine, Yehud Medinata, Judea and, after the Romans destroyed the region in 136 CE, as Syria-Palaestina.”
70135 BCE (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“135/4 BCE – John Hyrcanus becomes Hasmonean king.”
71129 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
The Seleucid state leader Antiochus VII Sidetes dies.
72110 BCE
[oxfordre.com, accessed 2024]
“Around the mid-5th century BCE, Yahwistic Samarians built a temple on the main peak of Mount Gerizim (Arabic Jebel eṭ-Ṭūr), … Although the temple was destroyed by the Hasmoneans (152–37 BCE) in 110 BCE, …”
73107 BCE
[archaeology.org, accessed 2024]
“According to a statement released by Antiquity, Achim Lichtenberger of the University of Münster and Oren Tal of Tel Aviv University have dated the destruction of northern Israel’s Seleucid settlement of Tell Izṭabba to the spring of 107 B.C. Also known as Nysa-Scythopolis, the town was attacked by the Hasmoneans between 111 and 107 B.C.”
74104 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“Aristobulus I (died 103 BC) was a Hasmonean (Maccabean) Hellenized king of Judaea (104–103 BC). The son of Hyrcanus I, he broke his late father’s will and seized the throne from his mother and jailed or killed his brothers. According to the historian Josephus, Aristobulus conquered the Ituraeans of Lebanon and forcibly converted them to Judaism. He was the first of his house to adopt the title of king (basileus).”
75103 BCE
[newworldencyclopedia.org, accessed 2024]
“Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai) was king and high priest of Judea from (103 B.C.E. to 76 B.C.E.). His Hebrew name was Jonathan (Yehonatan). Although an effective military leader, he is seen in Jewish tradition as a ruthless tyrant who brutally persecuted the early Pharisees. The third son of John Hyrcanus, Jannaeus came to the throne after the death of his brother Aristobulus I with the help of Aristobulus’ widow Salome Alexandra, whom Jannaeus soon married. Continuing the success of his father Hyrcanus, Jannaeus substantially expanded Judea’s territory.”
7676 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“John Hyrcanus II (died 30 BC, Jerusalem) was the high priest of Judaea from 76 to 40 BC, and, with his brother Aristobulus II, last of the Maccabean (Hasmonean) dynastic rulers. Under Hyrcanus’ vacillating leadership, Judaea (southern of the three traditional divisions of ancient Palestine, today mostly in Israel) fell into vassalage to Rome. When his father, Alexander Jannaeus, died in 76, Hyrcanus was appointed high priest, and on his mother’s death in 67 he assumed the rulership of Judaea. After a troubled reign of three months, his warlike brother Aristobulus drove him from power.”
7767 BCE
[jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]
Hyrcanus II
Eighth Hasmonean ruler of Judea.
“The indolent older son of Alexander Jannai and Salome Alexandra succeeded his father as high priest [76 BCE], while his mother retained at least nominal control of political affairs. After her death [67 BCE] he was deposed by his younger brother, Aristobulus, but with the support of Antipater he was restored to the high-priesthood after Roman forces wrested control of Jerusalem from his brother’s aristocratic supporters [63 BCE]. Yet he was deprived of the title of ‘king’ [basileus] by the Roman general, Pompey, who was opposed to monarchies in principle.”
7863 BCE

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]

“Rome, led by Pompey the Great, conquers Israel.”
7963 BCE
[cotf.edu, accessed 2024]
“In 63 BC, the Romans took Palestine as a Roman province.”
8063 BCE
[image-database.nes.lsa.umich.edu, accessed 2024]
“During the Hellenistic period (332-63 BCE) the city of Beth Shean enjoyed a revival and came to be known as Scythopolis, or ‘City of the Scythians’, perhaps as a result of a unit of the Scythian cavalry in the army of Ptolemy II Philadelphus. During the 2nd century BCE it was also known as Nyssa, after the nurse of the god Dionysus, as legend says that she was buried here. The city fell into Jewish hands when it was conquered by the Hasmonaean king John Hyrcanus (134-104 BCE) but fell to Rome in 63 BCE. Josephus mentions Scythopolis as the capital of the Decapolis (the league of 10 cities).”
8166 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“In 63 BCE the Roman general Pompey captured Jerusalem. The Romans ruled through a local client king and largely allowed free religious practice in Judaea. At times, the divide between monotheistic and polytheistic religious views caused clashes between Jews and Gentiles. This friction, combined with oppressive taxation and unwanted imperialism, culminated in 66 CE in the First Jewish Revolt.”
8257 BCE
[oxfordre.com, accessed 2024]
“In 63 BCE, Pompey overran the country, besieged and captured Jerusalem. Judaea was now attached to the larger, new province of Syria. ‘Judaea’ as an administrative and political term originated in the period when the territory was a Roman client kingdom and subject to tribute. The non-Jewish towns both west and east of Jordan were detached from Judaea and placed under the jurisdiction of the governor of the province of Syria. The substantially reduced Jewish territory was assigned to Hyrcanus II as ethnarch and High Priest (63–40 BCE). In 57–5 BCE, it was reorganized by A. Gabinius, the proconsul of Syria, into five districts or councils (synodoi, synedria): Jerusalem, Amathus, Gadara, Jericho and Sepphoris.”
8347 BCE
worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Herod I, or Herod the Great (c. 75 – 4 BCE), was the king of Judea … Herod was a client king (or close ally) of Rome, but his route to the throne was not a straightforward one. His father Antipater the Idumaean made him governor of Galilee in 47 BCE. On the death of his father, there followed a turbulent period of in-fighting involving his brother and various Roman factions.”
8440 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“In 40 BCE the Parthians invaded Palestine, civil war broke out, and Herod was forced to flee to Rome. The senate there nominated him king of Judaea and equipped him with an army to make good his claim.”
8537 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“In the year 37 BCE, at the age of 36, Herod became the unchallenged ruler of Judaea, a position he was to maintain for 32 years.”
8630 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Herod’s reign was largely a peaceful one, and although he gained a reputation for imposing oppressive taxes, in fact, these were not excessive and no worse than contemporary regimes. Neither was Herod obliged to pay tribute to Rome, although he did send handsome gifts. By 30 BCE he had regained control of all the territories that the Hasmoneans and Cleopatra had taken. Then between 23 and 20 BCE he expanded his realm into northern Galilee and repopulated certain areas with sympathetic settlers.”
8731 BCE (circa)
[researchgate.net, accessed 2024]
“… We have tabulated a varved chronology from a core from Ein Gedi on the western shore of the Dead Sea between deformed sediments due to a widespread earthquake in 31 BC and deformed sediments due to an early first-century earthquake. The early first-century seismic event has been tentatively assigned a date of 31 AD with an accuracy of ±5 years. Plausible candidates include the earthquake reported in the Gospel of Matthew, an earthquake that occurred sometime before or after the crucifixion and was in effect ‘borrowed’ by the author of the Gospel ofMatthew, and a local earthquake between 26 and 36 AD that was sufficiently energetic to deform the sediments at Ein Gedi but not energetic enough to produce a still extant and extra-biblical historical record. If the last possibility is true, this would mean that the report of an earthquake in the Gospel of Matthew is a type of allegory.”
8828 BCE (circa)
[biblicalarchaeology.org, accessed 2024]
“Eight miles southeast of Jerusalem sits one of the greatest architectural marvels of ancient Judea, the Herodium. Constructed by the infamous Herod the Great around 28 B.C.E., this sprawling site originally served Herod as both an administrative center and desert fortress. Before long, however, it would also become his grave.”
8927 BCE
[newworldencyclopedia.org, accessed 2024]
“Samaria was the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. … Samaria later became the central city of the Samaritan nation and lent its name to the surrounding administrative district in Greek and Roman times. It was rebuilt as Sebaste by Herod the Great in 27 B.C.E.”
9022 BCE (circa)
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“Caesarea, (‘Ruins of Caesarea’), ancient port and administrative city of Palestine, on the Mediterranean coast of present-day Israel south of Haifa. It is often referred to as Caesarea Palaestinae, or Caesarea Maritima, to distinguish it from Caesarea Philippi near the headwaters of the Jordan River. Originally an ancient Phoenician settlement known as Straton’s (Strato’s) Tower, it was rebuilt and enlarged in 22–10 BCE by Herod the Great, king of Judaea under the Romans, and renamed for his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus.”
9120 BCE
[dighippos.com, accessed 2024]
“Yet the Roman authorities did not hesitate to transfer Hippos (Sussita) and Gadara to the area ruled by Herod. It is unnecessary to state that this was not at all pleasant for the residents of those cities, and in the year 20 BCE the residents of Gadara requested to be released from Herod’s rule and become once again a part of Provincia Syria.”
9220 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“Of major importance was the rebuilding of the Second Temple begun by Herod the Great, king (37 BCE–4 CE) of Judaea. Construction began in 20 BCE and lasted for 46 years.”
9319 BCE
[ritmeyer.com, accessed 2024]
“In 19 BC the master-builder, King Herod the Great, began the most ambitious building project of his life, the rebuilding of the Temple and the Temple Mount in lavish style.”
949 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“In 9 BCE a war broke out with Nabataea, Herod’s southern neighbours, which had become a base for Judean opposition factions.”
956 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“As well as diplomatic problems Herod had family issues to deal with, too. Suspecting his wife Mariamne of being unfaithful he had her executed in 29 BCE. Their two sons were suspected of loyalties to the opposition threatening Herod from Nabataea, and so Herod ruthlessly dispatched them c. 6 BCE, along with his eldest son Antipater two years later. By now, though, the ageing king was suffering severe health problems which affected his internal organs, and he died in 4 BCE.”
966 BCE (circa)
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“Jesus (born c. 6–4 BCE, Bethlehem—died c. 30 CE, Jerusalem)”
976 BCE
[whc.unesco.org, accessed 2024]
“In the year 30 BCE the village was awarded to Herod, who built a large port city at the site, and called it Caesarea in honor of his patron Octavian Augustus Caesar. … Caesarea was a planned city, with a network of crisscrossing roads, a temple, theater, amphitheater, markets and residential quarters. It took 12 years to build, and great festivities were held to mark its completion. The city transformed rapidly into a great commercial center, and by the year 6 BCE became the headquarters of the Roman government in Palestine.”
985 BCE
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“The whole of the region was referred to as `Canaan’ in Mesopotamian texts and trade records found at Ebla and Mari as early as the 18th century BCE while the term `Palestine’ does not appear in any written records until the 5th century BCE in the Histories of Herodotus. After Herodotus, the term `Palestine’ came to be used for the entire region which was formerly known as Canaan.”
994 BCE
[biblicalarchaeology.org, accessed 2024]
“Both Luke and Matthew mention Jesus’ birth as occurring during Herod’s reign (Luke 1:5; Matthew 2:1). Josephus relates Herod’s death to a lunar eclipse. This is generally regarded as a reference to a lunar eclipse in 4 B.C. Therefore it is often said that Jesus was born in 4 B.C.”
1004 BCE (circa)
[educationalcoin.com, accessed 2024]
Herod Archelaus “Son of Herod the Great, oversaw several cities in Judaea from 4 BCE to 6 CE.”
1014 BCE
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“Herod Antipas (born 21 BCE—died after 39 CE ) was the son of Herod I the Great who became tetrarch (ruler of a minor principality in the Roman Empire) of Galilee, in northern Palestine, and Peraea, east of the Jordan River and Dead Sea, and ruled throughout Jesus of Nazareth’s ministry. In the Gospel According to Luke (13:32), Jesus is reported as having referred to him with contempt as ‘that fox.’ About 4 BCE Herod Antipas inherited part of his father’s kingdom after the Roman emperor Augustus adjusted his father’s will. He restored the damage caused in the period between his father’s death and the approval of the will, restoring two towns, one of which he renamed in honour of the Roman imperial family.”
10218
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“Tiberias, city, northeastern Israel, on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee; one of the four holy cities of Judaism (Jerusalem, Hebron, Tiberias, Ẕefat [Safed]). … Tiberias was founded by Herod Antipas (ruled 4 BCE–39 CE), tetrarch of Galilee under the Romans, in 18 CE, and named for the reigning emperor Tiberius.”
10330

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“Jesus Christ is crucified.”
1044/3/33 (circa)
[livescience.com, accessed 2024]
“Jesus, as described in the New Testament, was most likely crucified on Friday April 3, 33 A.D. The latest investigation, reported in the journal International Geology Review, focused on earthquake activity at the Dead Sea, located 13 miles from Jerusalem. The Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 27, mentions that an earthquake coincided with the crucifixion …”
10534
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
Herod Philip dies. “Philip (born 20 BCE—died 34 CE) was the son of Herod I the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem (not to be confused with another Herod Philip, son of Herod I the Great by Mariamne II). He ruled ably as tetrarch over the former northeastern quarter of his father’s kingdom of Judaea.”
10637
[encyclopedia.com, accessed 2024]
“HEROD PHILIP I, tetrarch 4 b.c.e.–34 c.e.; son of *Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem. … He was married to his niece Salome, granddaughter of Herod and Mariamne ii, and died childless. After his death, his tetrarchy was incorporated into the province of Syria, but in 37 c.e. it was given to Agrippa …”
10739
[jewishencyclopedia.com, accessed 2024]
“Antipas’ marriage with Herodias was neither of long duration nor very happy. She was ambitious, and wished to see her husband in the possession of greater territorial power. After the death of Tiberius she induced her husband to make a personal appeal to the new emperor for the possession of the royal title; but Agrippa, whose first appointment to imperial function (as overseer of the markets) had been brought about through the influence of Herodias and Antipas, sent a messenger, Justinianus, to Caligula, who was then at Baiæ, and accused the tetrarch of plotting against Rome. Antipas could not deny that he had collected a vast stock of arms; and he was stripped of all his lands and wealth, which Caligula gave to Agrippa, banishing Antipas (39) to Lugdunum, in Gaul, whither Herodias followed him. He died shortly afterward.”
10839
[oxfordreference.com, accessed 2024]
“Herod Antipas … Deprived of his territory by Rome, he went into exile and died in 39 ce.”
10941 (circa)
[oxfordreference.com, accessed 2024]
“Herod Antipas … He was succeeded by Herod Agrippa I, his nephew, who ruled from 41 to 44 ce with much approval from the Pharisees.”
11050 (circa)
[oxfordreference.com, accessed 2024]
“… Herod Agrippa I, … who ruled from 41 to 44 ce with much approval from the Pharisees. … His son, Herod Agrippa II, too young in 44 ce, was given territory in 50 ce, augmented in 53 ce. He renamed his capital (Caesarea Philippi) Neronia in honour of the emperor. … During the Jewish revolt of 66–70 ce, he took the side of Rome, and died there in 93 ce.”
11162 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“62–64 – Completion of the renovations of the Jerusalem temple begun by Herod.”
11263
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Judea came under Roman control in 63 BCE but was governed by client kings dependent on Roman support. In 6 CE, during the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus (r. 27 BCE to 14 CE), it became the province of Judaea and was ruled by a Roman governor with the capital of Caesarea, located on the Mediterranean coast. The legions of Judea did not protect the East from external threats like the legions of Syria. Instead, their major challenge came internally, namely the nationalistic and religious ideals of its people.”
11366
[cotf.edu, accessed accessed 2024]
“The Jews revolted against the Romans in 66 AD.”
11467
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“The remaining Jewish rioters fled Caesarea to Jerusalem; there the Jewish people stopped paying taxes in the Temple and indiscriminately murdered Roman soldiers that were stationed there. The Zealots and Sicarii overran the Roman military garrison from Jerusalem. This was a heartening victory for the Jewish people as support for the Zealots in the city grew. This sense of Jewish dominance over the Romans was short lived. By the year 67 CE, the Romans under Vespasian and Titus had taken back all of Judea and killed the Jewish rebels that were left. The Jewish strongholds of Jodapatha, after a 47 day siege, was now under Roman control. The Romans were on the march to Jerusalem.”
11569
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Shortly before the siege of Jerusalem, a civil war broke out in Rome. Vespasian became the new emperor in 69 CE, and Titus, the second in command in the war, took up the reins. The Romans were at the gates of Jerusalem, in 70 CE, besieging the walls.”
11670
[cotf.edu, accessed 2024]
“The rebellion was crushed and the Second Temple was destroyed in 70 AD.”
11770 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“70/71 – Provincia Iudaea is established.”
11870

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“The Romans destroy the Second Temple and much of Jerusalem.”
11973
[ducksters.com, en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]
“The last of the Jewish rebels are defeated at Masada” by Romans
120106

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Romans annex Nabataean territory, reorganizing it as the province of Arabia.”
121120

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“First imperial road built through the Galilee.”
122129 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“129/130 – The Roman emperor Hadrian visits Syria, Palestine, and Arabia, and founds the Roman colony Aelia Capitolina at Jerusalem. Presumably, the outbreak of the Bar Kokhba revolt is directly linked to this event.”
123132 (circa)
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“By the time Rome appeared in the land it was long known as Judea, a term taken from the ancient Kingdom of Judah which had been destroyed by the Babylonians. It was also referred to, however, as Palestine and, after the Bar-Kochba Revolt of 132-136 CE, the Roman emperor Hadrian renamed the region Syria-Palaestina to punish the Jewish people for their insurrection (by naming it after their two traditional enemies, the Syrians and the Philistines). The designations Philistia, Roman Judea, and Palestine were all in use afterwards.”
124132

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“The Jewish people revolt against Roman rule. Hundreds of thousands of Jews are killed.”
125135
[cotf.edu, accessed 2024]
“In 135 AD the Jewish population of Palestine was dispersed throughout the ancient world.”
126195

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The bishops of Caesarea and Jerusalem, Theophilus and Narcissus, preside over a council in Caesarea to settle a growing dispute over the proper date of the celebration of Easter.”
127200

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“The Mishnah, the first portion of the Talmud, is written down. This is the oral traditions and law of the Jewish people.”
128222

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Caesarea becomes the metropolitan see for Palestine.”
129270

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Zenobia, ruler of the Palmyrene Empire, conquers most of the Roman east including Palestine.”
130272

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Palestine is recaptured by Rome.”
131313
[study.com, accessed 2024]
“The Edict of Milan was issued in February 313 CE by two Roman emperors, Constantine and Licinius. An edict is a written declaration. This edict granted religious liberty to those who practiced Christianity and other faiths. Emperor Constantine had recently won the Battle of Milvian Bridge against a rival claimant to the throne, supposedly thanks to the divine intervention of the Christian god. Licinius, who ruled in the Balkans, forged an alliance with Constantine, who ruled in the west, but eventually, the two men turned against each other.
A popular misconception holds that the Edict of Milan established Christianity as the official state religion of the Roman Empire. This is incorrect. While Constantine converted to Christianity during his reign, it would take another few decades, until the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 CE, for Christianity to be made the state religion.”
132324
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
“… Constantine attacked Licinius in 324, routing him at Adrianople and Chrysopolis (respectively, modern Edirne and Üsküdar, Turkey) and becoming sole emperor of East and West.”
133325
[numismatics.org, accessed 2024]
“In 325 AD, the Council of Nicea met and Constantine declared Christianity to be the nation’s official religion. Incidentally, it is not clear whether Constantine himself actually ever became a Christian. His mother, Helena, was not only converted but was so excited by her spiritual experience that it enticed her to make a pilgrimage, circa 326 AD to Judea, where she could visit all of the sites that were important in the life of Jesus. … Until Helena’s visit, nobody outside of the Christians in the Holy Land had paid much attention to the sites there. In Helena’s day the Jews maintained important academies at Tiberius, Sepphoris, and Lydda (Lod).”
134326 (circa)
[sthelenofthecross.org, accessed 2024]
“Then, on September 14, 326, Emperor Constantine’s mother, Empress Helena, found in Jerusalem the True Cross on which Jesus was crucified. The legend of the story of the discovery of the True Cross begins when Constantine appointed his mother Empress Helena as Augusta Imperatrix, and gave her unlimited access to the imperial treasury to locate the relics of the Christian tradition. In 326-28 AD, Empress Helena, at age 80, undertook a pilgrimage to Palestine. Upon visiting the holy places in Palestine, she was guided to the site of the Crucifixion by an aged Jew who had inherited traditional knowledge as to its location. After the ground had been excavated to a considerable depth, three crosses were unearthed, as well as the superscription placed over the Savior’s head on the Cross, and the nails with which He had been crucified. The Cross of the Lord was distinguished from the other two by laying the crosses on a dead youth who was revived by the touch of the third cross.
To commemorate the finding of the Holy Cross, Constantine dedicated two Churches upon Calvary, ‘Anastasis’ and ‘Golgotha,’ both within the precincts of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Beginning in those days, the Feast of the ‘Exaltation of the Holy Cross’ was commemorated annually on May 3.”
135350

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“The Jerusalem version of the Talmud is completed. Another version, the Babylonian version, will be compiled around 500 CE.”
136350 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“c. 350 – The Christian monk Hilarion founds the first church in Haluza and converts a large portion of the population.”
137351 (circa)
[jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]
351/352 – “Tensions continued to mount in Judea between Christians and Jews. It was official Christian policy to convert Jews to Christianity, and the Christian leadership used the official power of Rome in their attempts. In 351 CE the Jews revolted against the added pressures of a bad ruler named Gallus. Gallus put down the revolt and destroyed all of the major cities in the Galilee where the revolt had started. Tzippori and Lydda (site of two of the major legal academies) never recovered.”
138358 (circa)
[jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]
“Arabia was founded by Emperor Trajan in 105 CE and was attached to Palestine. In 358, the Negev and southern Transjordan became a separate province named Palestina Salutaris. Around the year 390, during the Byzantine period, the imperial province of Syria Palaestina was reorganized into Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda, and Palaestina Salutaris. Following the Muslim conquest, place names were converted to Arabic. Palestina Prima became Filastin and Secunda was Urdunn (Jordan).”
139361 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“361–363 – Roman emperor Julian the Apostate orders Alypius of Antioch to rebuild the Jewish Temple.”
140363

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“An earthquake with its epicenter in the Galilee rocks Palestine. The earthquake results in, among other things, a halt in the construction of the Jewish Temple, mainly because it ruins the early stages of the construction. Ultimately the plan to rebuild the Temple is scrapped after the death of emperor Julian in June 363.”
141374 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“374/375 – Melania the Elder founds a monastery on the Mount of Olives which also functions as a hostel for pilgrims.”
142400 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“c. 400 – Palestine proper is split into the provinces Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda. Palaestina Salutaris is renamed Palaestina Tertia.”
143425

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Sanhedrin is disbanded by the Byzantine Empire.”
144438 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“438-439 – Empress Aelia Eudocia Augusta visits Jerusalem for the first time.”
145451

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Council of Chalcedon declares that Jerusalem shall be a patriachate.”
146484

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Samaritans revolt as Emperor Zeno has a church built on their holy mountain, Gerizim.”
147529

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Samaritans rebel against the Romans.
Samaritanism loses its religio licita status as punishment.”
148541 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“541/542 – The bubonic plague sweeps Palestine.”
149555 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“555/556 – Uprising by Samaritans and Jews centered around Caesarea.”
150571

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Muhammad, founder of Islam, is born in Mecca.”
151610
[cotf.edu, accessed 2024]
“Islam was born in 610 AD when the prophet Mohammed received revelations from Allah (God) through the archangel Jibril (Gabriel). After defeating the Sassanids of Iran and the Byzantines, the land of Palestine was then ruled by successive Arab-Islamic empires before coming under the control of a Turko-Islamic empire (the Ottoman Empire). The few Jews that lived within these empires were generally well treated. Being non-Muslims they were expected to pay an additional tax (jizyah) and to accept the political leadership of the rulers (caliphs and later, sultans). But, being ‘people of the book’ (meaning that Judaism, as well as Christianity, are acknowledged as part of the same prophetic tradition as Islam) the Jews were given special status being able to freely worship, to apply their own laws on most matters, and to be ruled by their own local leaders.”
152613

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Sasanian Empire (Persian Empire) captures several Palestinian cities on the coast.”
1535/614

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Sasanian Empire under general Shahrbaraz captures and sacks Jerusalem;[86] the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is damaged by fire and the True Cross is captured.”
154614

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“The Persians capture Jerusalem after the Siege of Jerusalem.”
155629

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“The Byzantine Empire recaptures Jerusalem.”
156629

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Byzantine Emperor Heraclius retakes Jerusalem after the decisive defeat of the Sassanid Empire at the Battle of Nineveh in 627. Heraclius personally returns the True Cross to the city.”
157634 (circa)
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“When the Western Roman Empire fell, Palestine was taken by the Eastern or Byzantine Empire and held until c. 634 CE when it was taken by invading Muslim armies from Arabia.”
1582/4/634

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Rashidun Caliphate defeats a 300-man-strong Byzantine force led by Dux Sergius at the Battle of Dathin, near Gaza.”
159637 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“637 (or 638) – Jerusalem falls to the armies of Rashidun caliph Umar Ibn el-Khatab.[89] Jews are permitted to return to the city after 568 years of Roman and Byzantine rule.”
160637 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“637 (or 638): June/July – The Rashiduns capture Gaza.”
161637 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“637 (or 638): summer – Ascalon surrenders to the Rashiduns.”
162637 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“637 (or 638): late – The Rashiduns and the Byzantines consent to a truce.”
163638

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“Muslim forces capture Jerusalem.”
164640

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Rashiduns capture Caesarea.”
165641

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Rashiduns capture Ashkelon, completing their conquest of the Holy Land.”
166661

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Umayyad family takes control of the caliphate and moves its capital to Damascus, following the assassination of the Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib.”
167687 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“687–691 – The Dome of the Rock is built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem at the site where, according to Islam, Muhammad ascended to heaven.”
168691

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“The Dome of the Rock is built on the Temple Mount.”
169715 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“c. 715 – Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik founds Ramla; it becomes the capital and administrative center of Palestine.”
1702/744

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“February – Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik dies and is succeeded by Al-Walid II.”
171744

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“spring – Beginning of widespread mutinies against the Umayyads.”
172744

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“April – Caliph Al-Walid II is assassinated and succeeded by Yazid III.”
173744

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“October – Yazid III is assassinated and succeeded by Ibrahim ibn al-Walid.”
174744

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“November – Caliph Ibrahim is defeated in battle by Marwan II who becomes the new caliph.”
175745

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Theodore is appointed patriarch of Jerusalem.”
176747
circa

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“747–750 – Civil war resulting in the overthrow of the Umayyads; the Abbasid family seize control of the caliphate.”
1771/18/749

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Galilee earthquake destroys Tiberias, Scythopolis, Hippos, and Pella. Many other cities throughout the Jordan valley suffer heavy damage. Tens of thousands of lives are lost.”
178758

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Caliph Al-Mansur visits Jerusalem and possibly orders the renovation of the Dome of the Rock.”
179762

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Abbasids found Baghdad and designate it the caliphate’s new capital.”
180792 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“792/793 – War between the tribes of Palestine”
181796

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Battles between the tribes of Palestine.”
182799

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Patriarch of Jerusalem sends a mission to the Frankish king Charlemagne and the latter returns the favor.”
183800 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“c. 800 – The Jewish High Council, headed by Gaon, moves from Tiberias to Jerusalem.”
184800

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Patriarch of Jerusalem sends another mission to Charlemagne carrying the keys to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, together with a banner.”
185807

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“A rebellion breaks out. Led by Abu’l-Nida’, it has its epicenter in Eilat.”
186820 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“c. 820 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is repaired.”
187820

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Basil is appointed patriarch of Jerusalem.”
188855

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Solomon is appointed patriarch of Jerusalem.”
189885

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Abbasids reconquer Damascus.”
190873

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The governor of Egypt, Ahmad Ibn Tulun, breaks with the Abbasids and establishes independent rule.”
191878

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Tulunids occupy most of the former Byzantine Diocese of the East, enabling them to defend Egypt against Abbasid attacks.”
192879

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Elias III is appointed patriarch of Jerusalem.”
193881 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“c. 881 – Elias III of Jerusalem appeals to the Franks.”
194903 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“c. 903 – Persian geographer Ibn al-Faqih visits Jerusalem.”
195905 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“905/906 – The Abbasids regain control of Palestine.”
196908 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“908/909 – Al-Muqtadir forbids Christians from serving in administrative positions.”
197913 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“c. 913 – Spanish scholar Ibn Abd Rabbih visits Jerusalem.”
198935

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Al-Ikhshid takes control of Egypt and establishes independent rule.”
1993/26/937

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Rioting Muslims burn down the Church of the Resurrection and loot the Chapel of Golgotha.”
200939

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“October 17 – Muhammad ibn Ra’iq conquers Ramla.”
201939

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“late – Battle of al-‘Arish between Ibn Ra’iq and al-Ikhshid.”
2027/946

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Sayf al-Dawla invades Palestine.”
203966

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“A Muslim-Jewish mob torches the Church of Resurrection, plunders it, and kills Jerusalem’s Patriarch John VII.”
204969 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

969/970 – “The Fatimids, a self-proclaimed Shia caliphate, defeat the Ikhshidids and appoint a Jewish governor.”
205971

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Qarmatians attack Damascus.”
2069/5/971

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Qarmatians conquer Ramla.”
20712/971

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Fatimids ward off a Qarmatian invasion near Fustat.”
208972 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“972 or 975 – Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes leads an expedition that reaches as far south as Caesarea and Tiberias in Palestine.”
209975

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“winter – The Turkish officer Alptakin conquers Sidon and slaughters the population.”
210975

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“spring – Alptakin conquers Tiberias.”
2114/975

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Alptakin conquers Damascus.”
2123/12/977

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Ramla is again conquered by the Qarmatians.”
213978

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Joseph II is appointed patriarch of Jerusalem.”
2148/15/978

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“A massive Fatimid army defeats Alptakin and the Qarmatians in southern Palestine.”
215978 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“978–979 winter – The Jewish Fatimid general tries to negotiate with the leader of the Hamdanids, but their leader Abu Taghlib refuses because Fadl is a Jew. He later agrees to negotiations with Fadl who offers him Ramla in exchange for ousting the Jarrahids.”
2168/979

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Abu Taghlib launches a failed offensive on Ramla and is taken captive and executed.”
2176/981

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Damascus is besieged by a Fatimid army.”
2187/981

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Bedouins, led by the Jarrahids, rebel against the Fatimids.”
2197/5/983

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Damascus is conquered by a Fatimid army.”
220984

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Orestes is appointed patriarch of Jerusalem.”
2212/24/991

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Ya’qub ibn Killis dies.”
222996 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“996–998 – Revolt in Tyre. The rebels call for and receive support from the Byzantines. The Fatimids put the city under siege and it falls in May 998. The rebel leader is tortured and crucified.”
2231006 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1006–1007 – Russian abbot Daniel makes pilgrimage to Palestine.”
2241008

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah forbids Jerusalem Christians from performing the Palm Sunday procession.”
22510/18/1009

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah orders the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.”
2261011 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1011–1013 February – Uprising of the Yemenite Djarrahid Bedouin tribe who seize Ramla and establish a mini-caliphate.”
2271012

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Beginning of al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah’s oppressive decrees against Christians and Jews.”
2289/4/1015

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Earthquake. The dome of the Dome of the Rock collapses.”
2292/13/1021

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Caliph Al-Hakim is assassinated and succeeded by his son al-Zahir.”
2309/1024

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Bedouin rebellion erupts over tax-collecting privileges (iqta’a). The Bedouins attack and loot Ramla and Tiberias.”
2311026 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1026–1027 – Richard of Verdun makes pilgrimage to Palestine.”
2321027

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“A treaty is signed between the Byzantine emperor and the Fatimid caliph. It permits the rebuilding of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and allows Christians who had converted to Islam under duress to return to their former faith. It also granted the emperor the right to designate the patriarch of Jerusalem. In return, the mosque of Constantinople would be reopened.”
2331029

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Anushtakin defeats a Bedouin coalition that challenges Fatimid rule in Palestine and Syria.”
2341032

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Renovations of the Dome of the Rock ordered by Caliph al-Zahir are finished.”
2351033

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Jerusalem’s city walls are rebuilt.”
23612/5/1033

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Jordan Rift Valley earthquake.”
2371047

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Persian poet and traveler Nasir Khusraw visits Palestine.”
2381063

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Fatimids strengthen or rebuild the walls of Jerusalem.”
2391064 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1064–1065 – The Great German Pilgrimage takes place.”
2401068

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“An earthquake destroys Ramla, killing an estimated 15,000.”
2411071

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Seljuk Turks invade large portions of West Asia, including Asia Minor and the Eastern Mediterranean; they capture Ramla and lay siege to Jerusalem.”
2421071

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“The Seljuk Turks take control of Jerusalem and forbid Christians from entering the city.”
2431073

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Seljuks invade Palestine.”
2441075

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Seljuks capture Damascus.”
2451075

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“A severe drought hits Palestine.”
2461077

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Seljuks capture Jaffa.”
2471089

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Fatimids conquer Tyre.”
2481092 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1092–1095 – Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi stays in Jerusalem.”
2491093

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Muslims in coastal communities bar Christians from entering Palestine.”
25011/27/1095

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Pope Urban II launches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont. Its principal objectives are Catholic reconquest of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land, and the freeing of Eastern Christians from Islamic rule.”
2511096

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“Christians in Europe embark on the First Crusade.”
2521096 (circa)
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“Palestine came to be referred to by European Christians as the Holy Land and the First Crusade was launched to win it back from Muslim occupation in 1096 CE. This effort was followed by many more, supported by the Byzantine Empire, through 1272 CE at enormous cost of life and property but with nothing finally gained.”
2537/1098

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Fatimids lay siege to Jerusalem.”
2548/26/1098

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Fatimids recapture Jerusalem.”
2556/7/1099

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The crusaders reach Jerusalem and besieges the city.”
2566/17/1099

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“A Genoese fleet captures Jaffa.”
2577/15/1099

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Catholic soldiers under Godfrey of Bouillon, Robert II of Flanders, Raymond IV of Toulouse and Tancred take Jerusalem after a difficult siege, killing nearly every inhabitant.”
2587/22/1099

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Godfrey is elected as the ruler of Jerusalem, but he is not crowned king.”
2598/12/1099

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Crusaders defeat the Fatimids at the Battle of Ascalon.”
2601099

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Godfrey of Bouillon enters Jaffa.”
2611099

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“Crusaders take control of Jerusalem.”
26212/25/1100

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Kingdom of Jerusalem is established.”
2631113 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1113–1115 – Earthquakes hits the region.”
2641116

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Latins repair the walls of Jerusalem.”
2651124

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Crusaders conquer Tyre.”
2668/23/1153

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Franks capture Ascalon, thus completing the conquest of the Western coast of the Mediterranean Sea.”
26711/25/1177

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Battle of Montgisard: Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeat Saladin.”
2681177

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Latins repair the walls of Jerusalem.”
2695/1/1187

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Battle of Cresson: Saladin defeats the crusaders.”
2706/1187

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Saladin captures Tiberias.”
2717/4/1187

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin.”
27210/2/1187

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Saladin captures Jerusalem from Crusaders.”
2731187

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt, captures Jerusalem. Jews are allowed to enter the city.”
2748/28/1189

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Guy of Lusignan besieges Acre.”
2751189 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1189–1192 – Third Crusade led by the armies of Richard the Lionhearted.”
2766/8/1191

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Richard arrives at Acre.”
2777/12/1191

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Muslim garrison at Acre surrenders to the Crusaders.”
2788/20/1191

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Richard executes Muslim prisoners from Acre outside the city.”
2799/7/1191

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Richard I of England defeats Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf forcing him to retreat with heavy losses.”
2809/2/1192

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Richard and Saladin signs the Treaty of Jaffa, a peace-treaty to run for three years.”
28110/9/1192
[en.wikipedia.org, 4/28/2024]
“Richard leaves Palestine.”
2823/4/1193 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1193 March 3/4 – Saladin dies in Damascus. Conflicts between his sons, brothers and nephews cause the disintegration of his empire.”
2831202

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Major earthquake.”
2843/1219

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Ayyubid sultan Al-Mu’azzam Isa orders the destruction of Jerusalem’s city walls to prevent the crusaders from capturing a fortified city.”
2852/18/1229

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Frederick II and the Ayyubid sultan Al-Kamil signs the Treaty of Jaffa, a 10-year-truce (hudna) that restores Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem to Christian control in exchange for protection.”
2863/17/1229

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Frederick enters Jerusalem.”
2871239

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Ayyubid ruler An-Nasir Dawud destroys some of the refortifications built by the Franks in Jerusalem.”
2881243

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Franks recover Jerusalem.”
2897/11/1244

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Khwarezmians capture Jerusalem and slaughter its inhabitants.”
29010/18/1244

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Battle of La Forbie north-east of Gaza: The Crusaders and their allies, the Ayyubids of Damascus, Homs, and Kerak, suffer a crushing defeat by the Egyptian army and their Khwarezmian mercenaries.”
2911250 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“c. 1250 – Rabbi Yehiel ben Joseph founds a Yeshiva (Jewish religious school) in Acre.”
2921258

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Mongols execute the last Abbasid caliph.”
2931260

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Battle of Ain Jalut (Jezreel Valley) between the Egyptian Mamluks and the Mongols.”
2941265

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Mamluk Bahri dynasty of Egypt captures several cities and towns from Crusader states in the Middle East, including the cities of Haifa, Arsuf, and Caesarea Maritima.”
2951267

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“According to tradition, Nachmanides visits Jerusalem and establishes the Ramban Synagogue. However, it is doubtful whether Nachmanides ever visited Jerusalem.”
2965/18/1291

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Fall of Acre: Al-Ashraf Khalil of Egypt captures Acre, thus exterminating the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (the final Catholic landholding remaining from the Crusades), and ending the Ninth Crusade.”
2971453
[worldhistory.org, accessed 2024]
“The Byzantine Empire fell in 1453 CE, greatly reducing Christian influence in the region, and Palestine was held by the Ottoman Turks. The region continued to be contested throughout the next few centuries until the British involved themselves in 1915 CE during World War I at which time the western powers first devised plans to partition the Middle East for their own purposes and benefit.”
2981516
[antiquities.org.il, accessed 2024]
“Suleiman the Magnificent carried out several building projects in Jerusalem, among them: he built the city walls, rehabilitated the waterworks and decorated the outside of the Dome of the Rock with Kashani tiles. Of the three major construction projects Jerusalem’s city walls have left the greatest mark on the city’s appearance since then.
It is commonly assumed that when the Ottomans arrived in the country in 1516 the wall in Jerusalem was breached and in ruins and just a few remains survived in the area.”
2991517

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]


“The Ottoman Empire conquers the Mamluk Sultanate and takes control of Israel. Suleiman the Magnificent rebuilds much of Jerusalem. The Ottoman Empire will rule until the 1900s.”
3001516 (circa)
[PDF, accessed 2024]
1516-1517 “The Ottomans conquer Palestine.”
3011517 (circa)
[en.hebron.org.il, accessed 2024]
“Due to lack of modern documentation, the massacre of 1517 is even more obscure but still an important part of Jewish history in Hebron.
The events of 1517 took place during the Ottoman–Mamluk War which resulted in the Turkish based Ottoman Empire wresting control of the Land of Israel (and most of the Middle East) from the Egyptian based Mamluks. Attacks occurred in Tzfat as well.”
3021517 (circa)
[jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]
“Under the Ottoman Empire (1517-1917), the term ‘Palestine’ was used as a general term to describe the land south of Syria; it was not an official designation. Many Ottomans and Arabs who lived in Palestine during this period referred to the area as Southern Syria, not Palestine.”
3031538 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1538–1535 – Suleiman the Magnificent restores the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Jerusalem city walls (which are the current walls of the Old City of Jerusalem).”
3041541
[theculturetrip.com, accessed 2024]
“… the Eastern gate was ultimately sealed shut in 1541 by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman. … The final sealing shut of the gate as completed by Suleiman is said to have been a defensive move by the sultan. As derived from the Jewish literature, the gate is said to be the point at which the Jewish Messiah will enter the city of Jerusalem, and therefore, in order to prevent this from occurring, the sultan sealed the gate.”
3051/14/1546

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“This earthquake is documented by a wide array of authors writing in multiple languages and coming from a variety of traditions. There is enough chronological agreement between authors to state that sometime between noon and the early afternoon of 14 January 1546 CE, an earthquake struck which caused death and destruction in Jerusalem, Hebron and Nablus along with many other localities. The Jordan River was reported to have dried up for 1-3 days which one report (Ot nafshi) said might have been due to a landslide causing a natural damming of the river (e.g., in Damiya).”
3061604

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“First Protectorate of missions under the Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire: Ahmad I agreed that the subjects of Henry IV of France were free to visit the Holy Places of Jerusalem. French missionaries begin to travel to Jerusalem and other major Ottoman cities.”
3071660

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The towns of Safed and nearby Tiberias, with substantial Jewish communities, were destroyed in the turmoil following the 1658 death of Mulhim Ma’n, with only Safed being repopulated shortly after the destruction. Some sources place the destruction of Safed in 1662.”
3081663 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1663–1665 – Sabbatai Zevi, founder of the Sabbateans, preaches in Jerusalem before travelling back to his native Smyrna where he proclaimed himself the Messiah.”
30910/14/1700
[jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]
“Meanwhile, Judah HeChassid spent a year traveling through Germany and Moravia gaining followers. By the time the whole group gathered in Italy, they numbered almost 1500.
They took two different routes: one through Venice and one through Constantinole. It was a terrible experience, and almost 500 people died on the trip.
They arrived in Jerusalem in on October 14, 1700 creating a variety of major crises. At that time only about 200 Ashkenazic Jews lived in Jerusalem. (There were about 1,000 Sephardic Jews.) The sudden influx of 1,000 Ashkenazic Jews created an economic crisis, because the Jerusalem community had no infrastructure or facilities to help such a large group.”
3101742 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1742–1777 – Several Jewish Hassidic leaders (including Rabbi Abraham Gershon of Kitob and Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk) move to the Holy Land with many followers of the Baal Shem Tov. Historians mark their arrival as the beginning of the current Jewish Hassidic community in the region.”
31110/30/1759

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Another devastating earthquake shook the Jordan Rift Valley region. The epicenter of the earthquake was again in the Jordan River, in a location between the Sea of Galilee and the Hula Valley. The cities of Safed, Tiberias, Acre, and Sidon were heavily damaged.”
3121798

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Napoleon Bonaparte leads the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria.”
3133/3/1799

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1799 – March 3–4 – Napoleonic Wars: Siege of Jaffa – Napoleon captures the city of Jaffa.”
3143/20/1799

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1799 – March 20–May 21 – Napoleonic Wars: Siege of Acre – An unsuccessful attempt by Napoleon to capture the city of Acre.”
3154/8/1799
[frenchempire.net, accessed 2024]
“When Napoleon left for the expedition to Egypt, Junot accompanied him and took part in the fighting on Malta. Once in Egypt he served at Rahmanieh, Chebreiss, and the Battle of the Pyramids, and then he helped repress the revolt of Cairo. In January of 1799 Junot was promoted to général de brigade and in March he was attached to Kléber’s division. On April 8th, his men fought off the sizable Turkish forces at Nazareth, and then on the 11th he fought at the bridge of Yacoub and the combat of Ghazarah. On the 16th, he and his men contributed to the victory of Mount Tabor. A few months later in July Junot joined Rampon’s division and served at the Battle of Abukir. He did not accompany Napoleon’s return to France, instead departing Alexandria in October and being captured by the British on his way back.”
3164/11/1799

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Cana.”
3174/16/1799

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Mount Tabor – Napoleon drives Ottoman Turks across the River Jordan near Acre.”
3181799
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Napoleon Offers Palestine As A Homeland To Jews”
3191808 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1808–1810 – Students of Elijah ben Solomon Zalman (Gr”a), amounting to 501 families, arrive in the Holy Land. Historians mark their arrival as the beginning of the current Jewish Ashkenazi community in the region.”
3205/10/1832

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Mohammed Ali, leading Egyptian forces, and aided by local Maronites, seizes Acre from the Ottoman Empire after a 7-month siege.”
3211834

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Peasants’ revolt in Palestine – revolt by Arab Palestinian peasants against Egyptian conscription and taxation policies.”
3221/1/1837

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Galilee earthquake of 1837 – A devastating earthquake shakes the Galilee region, killing thousands of people.”
3237/15/1840

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Austrian Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire sign the Convention of London with the ruler of the Ottoman Empire. The signatories offered to Muhammad Ali and his heirs permanent control over Egypt and the Acre Sanjak (roughly what is now Israel), provided that these territories remain part of the Ottoman Empire and that Ali agreed within ten days to withdraw from the rest of Syria and return to Sultan Abdülmecid I the Ottoman fleet which had defected to Alexandria. Muhammad Ali was also to immediately withdraw his forces from Arabia, the Holy Cities, Crete, the district of Adana, and all of the Ottoman Empire.”
3241860

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The first Jewish neighborhood (Mishkenot Sha’ananim) is built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem.”
3251874

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Jerusalem becomes a Mutesarrifiyyet gaining a special administrative status.”
3261882 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1882–1903 – The First Aliyah took place: 25,000–35,000 Jews immigrate to Ottoman Syria.”
3271882
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Rishon Le Zion, A Major Zionist Settlement, Is Established In Palestine”
3281885
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“The Term ‘Zionism’ Is First Coined”
3291887 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1887–1888 – Ottoman Syria is divided into Jerusalem Sanjak, Nablus Sanjak, and Acre Sanjak”
3301896
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Theodor Herzl Publishes Der Judenstaat, Calling For The Creation Of A Jewish State”
3311897
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“The First Zionist Congress Is Held In Switzerland. The First Zionist Organisation Is Founded”
3328/29/1897
[ajc.org, accessed 2024]
“The Zionist movement, founded by Theodor Herzl and other leaders, advocated for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine … The First Zionist Congress was held in 1897 in Basel, Switzerland, where Herzl and other prominent figures in the Zioniat movement discussed and debated their vision for the establishment of a Jewish state.”
3338/29/1897 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1897 August 29–31 – The First Zionist Congress is held in Basel, Switzerland. During it, the World Zionist Organization is founded and the Basel Declaration is approved. The latter determine that the Zionist movement’s ultimate aim is to establish and secure under public law a homeland for the Jewish people. The homeland is to be located in the Biblical region dubbed variously ‘The Holy Land’ or ‘Palestine’ by the European Christians during the Catholic and later secular Enlightenment.”
3341898

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“German Kaiser Wilhelm visits Jerusalem to dedicate the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer. He meets Theodor Herzl outside city walls.”
3351901

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Jewish National Fund is founded at the Fifth Zionist Congress in Basel with the aim of buying and developing land in the southern region of Ottoman Syria for Jewish settlement.”
3361907
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Zionist Leader Chaim Weizmann Visits Palestine For The First Time”
3371908
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“First Palestinian anti-Zionist weekly newspaper is published by Arab Christian Najib Nassar.”
3384/11/1909

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Tel Aviv is founded on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa.”
3391911

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Arabic newspaper Filasṭīn is founded.”
3401915
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“British cabinet member Herbert Samuel calls for the British annexation of Palestine in memorandum ‘The Future of Palestine’.”
3411/26/1915 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1915 – January 26–February 4 – A German led Ottoman Army advances from Southern Palestine, and conducts a Raid on the Suez Canal in an attempt to stop traffic through the canal.”
3421915

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1915 – March–October – The 1915 locust plague breaks out in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region.”
3431916
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“European Powers conclude secret Sykes-Picot agreement dividing future spheres of influence in Ottoman Empire territories.”
3441916 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1916–1918 – The Arab Revolt”
3455/16/1916

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Britain and France conclude the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement, which defines their respective spheres of influence and control in Western Asia after the expected demise of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I. It was largely a trade agreement with a large area set aside for indirect control through an Arab state or a confederation of Arab states.”
3468/3/1916 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1916 – August 3–5 – A German led Ottoman Army attacks British Empire forces defending the Suez Canal at the Battle of Romani.”
34712/23/1916

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The Anzac Mounted Division occupies El Arish and captures the Ottoman garrison during the Battle of Magdhaba.”
3481917
[anzacportal.dva.gov.au, accessed 2024]
“Gaza was the heart of the main Turkish defensive position in southern Palestine. The EEF launched three major battles in 1917 to capture Gaza. The first attack was called off, although it seemed to some in the forward areas that success was at hand. This attack included the famous Light Horse charge at Beersheba.”
3491/9/1917

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Sinai and Palestine Campaign: Battle of Rafa – British Empire forces defeat the Ottoman Empire garrison at Rafah after re-capturing the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force.”
3503/26/1917
[awm.gov.aug, accessed 2024]
“The coastal city of Gaza was the heart of the main Turkish defensive position in southern Palestine. Three major battles were launched in 1917 by British and dominion forces to capture Gaza – only the third succeeded in this object.
The first battle of Gaza took place on 26 March 1917. Two … The next morning, after realising his mistake, Dobell attempted to resume the battle with the infantry, but with the troops exhausted and the Turks having received reinforcements, the attack floundered.”
3514/6/1917
[haaretz.com, accessed 2024]
“1917: Ottoman Authority Orders Jews to Evacuate Tel Aviv … A total of 1,500 Jewish evacuees are thought to have died after heading north and being forced to lead a nomadic existence. … April 6, 1917 was the day set by the Ottoman authorities then ruling Palestine for the evacuation of the civilian population of Tel Aviv and Jaffa. Although the Muslims who were expelled were permitted to return to their homes within days, the Jews were not able to come back to the city until after the British conquest of Palestine, later that same year.”
3524/17/1917
[history.com, accessed 2024]
“… British forces in Palestine make their second attempt to capture the city of Gaza from the Ottoman army on April 17, 1917.
In the wake of the failed British assault on Gaza of March 26, 1917, Sir Archibald Murray, commander of British forces in the region, misrepresented the battle as a clear Allied victory, claiming Turkish losses to be triple what they actually were; in truth, at 2,400 they were significantly lower than the British total of 4,000. This led London’s War Office to believe their troops were on the verge of a significant breakthrough in Palestine and to order Murray to renew the attack immediately.
Though the previous assault had caught the Turks by surprise, the second one did not: the German general in charge of the troops at Gaza, Friedrich Kress von Kressenstein, was by now well aware of British intentions. By the time the British launched their second round of attacks on April 17, the Turks had accordingly strengthened their defenses and extended their forces along the road from Gaza to the nearby town of Beersheba. … After three days and heavy losses—the British casualty figure, of 6,444 men, was three times that of the Turks—Murray’s subordinate commander, Sir Charles Dobell, was forced to call off the British attacks, ending the Second Battle of Gaza with the city still firmly in Turkish control.”
35310/31/1917
[PDF army.gov.au, accessed 2024]
“The British victory at Beersheba in Palestine on October 31, 1917 was a part of the Third Battle of Gaza.”
35411/2/1917
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“The Balfour Declaration is the letter of November 2, 1917 from British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Zionist leader Baron Rothschild which expressed the British government’s support for the establishment of a ‘national home for the Jewish people’ in Palestine. The Balfour Declaration was heartily welcomed by the Zionist leadership. Subsequent British policy and declarations on this issue were less supportive of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Over a hundred years later, the Balfour Declaration continues to represent the first international recognition of the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in the land of Israel.”
35511/2/1917
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“The Balfour Declaration, which resulted in a significant upheaval in the lives of Palestinians, was issued on November 2, 1917.The declaration turned the Zionist aim of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine into a reality when Britain publicly pledged to establish ‘a national home for the Jewish people’ … The pledge is generally viewed as one of the main catalysts of the Nakba – the ethnic cleansing of Palestine in 1948 – and the conflict that ensued with the Zionist state of Israel.”
35611/2/1917
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Issuing of Boycott (on the Jewish community of Palestine)”
35711/13/1917 (circa)
[proprofs.com, accessed 2024]
“The Battle of Mughar Ridge, a pivotal engagement during World War I, occurred on November 13-14, 1917, as part of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. This campaign was a complex series of military operations aimed at securing control of the Middle East and protecting British interests in the Suez Canal, involving extensive fighting across the deserts and mountains of modern-day Israel, Palestine, and Egypt.”
35811/17/1917 (circa)
[anzacportal.dva.gov.au, accessed 2024]
“The success in the third battle of Gaza allowed the EEF to advance further into Palestine for another month before the Ottomans could regroup. In that time, EEF units under the command of General Sir Edmund Allenby captured the port of Jaffa, most of southern Judea and, on 9 December 1917, the city of Jerusalem. British Prime Minister Lloyd George welcomed the victory as a ‘Christmas’ morale booster after costly battles on the Western Front that year.”
35912/9/1917
[history.com, accessed 2024]
“On the morning of December 9, 1917, after Turkish troops move out of the region after only a single day s fighting, officials of the Holy City of Jerusalem offer the keys to the city to encroaching British troops.”
3602/21/1918
[history.com, accessed 2024]
“On the morning of February 21, 1918, combined Allied forces of British troops and the Australian mounted cavalry capture the city of Jericho in Palestine after a three-day battle with Turkish troops.
Commanded by British General Edmund Allenby, the Allied troops began the offensive on Tuesday, February 19, on the outskirts of Jerusalem. Despite battling adverse weather conditions and a determined enemy in the Turks, the Allies were able to move nearly 20 miles toward Jericho in just three days. On the morning of February 21, it was apparent that the Turkish line had been broken, and the Allied forces entered the holy city of Jericho without much resistance at just after 8 a.m. Upon realizing they had lost control of the city, Turkish troops chose to retreat rather than fight. During the three-day battle, Allied troops captured 46 Turkish prisoners.”
3613/8/1918 (circa)
[menonthegates.org.uk, accessed 2024]
“In March 1918 operations were planned to the west of the Jordan Valley to deprive Turkish forces of the roads and to isolate the lower part of the Valley. The objective was to secure a line from Wadi Auja on the west of the valley and running north west to Sinjil and Arura. … By 8.30pm on 9 March they had moved forward and under cover of darkness had descended the paths in single file to reach the base of the Wadi Nimur. … They reached the top at 3.00am and after a short hand to hand fight quickly overcame the enemy. They held the position fighting off counter-attacks. They remained in this position until 11 March when a further advance was made. A new line was established and all objectives had been achieved.”
3623/21/1918 (circa)
[barnesandnoble.com, accessed 2024]
“The First Transjordan attack on Amman (known to the British as the First Attack on Amman) and to their enemy as the First Battle of the Jordan took place between 21 March and 2 April 1918, as a consequence of the successful Battle of Tell ‘Asur which occurred after the Capture of Jericho in February and the Occupation of the Jordan Valley began, during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. During the First Transjordan attack large incursions into Ottoman territory occurred.” – “First Transjordan attack on Amman” by by Lucy Shaninghale
3634/30/1918 (circa)
[awm.gov.au, accessed 2024]
“Es Salt, a village in Palestine 23 km west of Amman, was the scene of heavy fighting between 30 April and 3 May 1918. The fighting occurred as part of the second ‘raid’ mounted east of the Jordan River by General Sir Edmund Allenby’s Egyptian Expeditionary Force. The actual raiding troops – the Australian Mounted, ANZAC Mounted, and British 60th Infantry Divisions, and the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade – were commanded by Lieutenant General Sir Harry Chauvel and their aim was to secure a launching point for operations against the key railway junction at Deraa. The operation progressed well initially with Es Salt being seized by the evening of 30 April. Increasingly determined Turkish resistance, including counter-attacks that threatened the flanks and rear of the advanced elements of the raiding force, eventually forced a withdrawal back to the Jordan on 3 May 1918. The raid failed in its objectives but did serve a purpose in that it encouraged Turkish commanders to believe Allenby’s next major effort would be launched across the Jordan, when in fact it would be launched along the coastal plain.”
3646/1918

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“First meeting between Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann and the son of the Sharif of Mecca Hashemite Prince Faisal, who led the Arab forces in the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. The meeting takes place in Faisal’s headquarters in Aqaba, and attempts to establish favourable relations between Arabs and Jews in the Middle East.”
3657/14/1918
[anzacmemorial.nsw.gov.au, accessed 2024]
“1918 – The Battle of Abu Tellul was fought during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, on the west bank of the Jordan River. The Australian Light Horse unit defending the heights at Mussallabeh was attacked by a German and Ottoman force.”
3669/19/1918 (circa)
[nam.ac.uk, accessed2024]
“Battle of Megiddo
The Battle of Megiddo (19-25 September 1918) was the climactic battle of the Sinai and Palestine campaign of the First World War (1914-18). German and Ottoman forces found themselves encircled by British Empire and French forces under General Sir Edmund Allenby.”
3679/26/1918 (circa)
[PDF icarabe.org, accessed 2024]
“September 26, 1918: The last Ottoman troops evacuate from Syria. An interim government is created in Damascus, headed by the Algerian notable Prince Sa’id al-Jaza’iri.”
36810/30/1918
[considerthesourceny.org, accessed 2024]
“World War I was fought in many theaters of the world, including the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire, consisting of present-day Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Iraq, Jordan, and parts of Saudi Arabia and Armenia, was a major power in the Middle East at the beginning of the war. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers late in 1914 after the secret Ottoman-German Alliance was signed. In the Sinai and Palestine, hostilities between the Allied Powers (primarily Britain and Russia) and the Central Powers (primarily the Ottoman Empire and Germany) began in 1915 when the Ottomans launched an unsuccessful attack across the Sinai to try to capture the Suez Canal, threatening Russian and British territories and communication. After another unsuccessful Ottoman attack in 1916, the British went on the offensive, attacking into Palestine. Late in 1917, the British captured Gaza and Jerusalem. Hostilities officially ended on October 30, 1918 with the signing of the Armistice of Mudros and, shortly thereafter, the Ottoman Empire was dissolved and the Turkish War of Independence began.”
3691918
[un.org, accessed 2021]
“The building of the ‘Jewish National Home’ started soon after the end of the First World War well before the Mandate was to come into effect in 1922. The Zionist Organization promoted large-scale Jewish immigration that brought marked changes in the population pattern in Palestine. The Jewish population in Palestine increased from 56,000 in 1918 to about 88,000 in 1922, when the total population was officially estimated at 750,000. By 1939, the Jewish population had increased to 445,000 out of a total population of about 1.5 million. This dramatic increase was primarily due to the large numbers of Jews fleeing the Nazi terror.”
3701/3/1919
[israeled.org, accessed 2024]
“On January 3, 1919, Emir Faisal, son of Sharif Husayn of Mecca, and Chaim Weizmann, Zionist diplomat and leader, signed the Faisal-Weizmann agreement, an agreement of mutual respect and cooperation between Arabs and Jews in the Middle East.
The two first met in Aqaba in the spring of 1918 at the suggestion of the British. The meeting took place amidst growing discontent among both Zionists and Arab nationalists about the future of Palestine following World War I and the national aspirations of both sides.
Following a second meeting in London in December 1918, the two made an agreement that proclaimed they were mindful of the racial kinship and ancient bonds existing between the Arabs and the Jewish people, and realizing that the surest means of working out the consummation of their national aspirations, is through the closest possible collaboration in the development of the Arab State and Palestine.
In the agreement, Faisal recognized the contents of the Balfour Declaration, agreeing to a Jewish presence in the Holy Land as long as Arab independence would be granted in the formerly Ottoman-controlled Middle East. However, the Faisal-Weizmann agreement never came to fruition because the League of Nations created mandates in the Middle East based on the British and French Sykes-Picot Agreement.”
3711920

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]

“The British take over Israel as part of the Palestine Mandate.”
3726/20/1920
[justvision.org, accessed 2024]
“Haganah, (Hebrew for ‘defense’) is a Zionist paramilitary group formed in 1920 with the expressed goal of defending the growing Jewish population in British mandate Palestine against attacks by Arab residents. The group later became part of the Jewish resistance against the British presence. In addition to its paramilitary activities, the Haganah actively established new Jewish settlements in and supported illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine.”
37312/1/1920
[ungeneva.org, accessed 2024]
“The League of Nations (1920 – 1946) was the first intergovernmental organization established ‘to promote international cooperation and to achieve international peace and security.’ It is often referred to as the ‘predecessor’ of the United Nations. Its founding document – the Covenant of the League of Nations – was drafted during the peace negotiations at the end of the First World War. It was composed of 26 articles, and covered many aspects of the organization, such as the conditions for membership, the functions of the principal organs, the mechanisms for a peaceful settlement of international disputes, and the obligations of the Member States. The Covenant also contained the main principles on which the League was built.”
3741922
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“The League of Nations grants mandate over former Ottoman territory Palestine to UK. Provisions include terms of the Balfour Declaration, including a ‘Jewish national home’.”
3751922
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Between 1922 and 1935, the Jewish population rose from nine percent to nearly 27 percent of the total population, displacing tens of thousands of Palestinian tenants …”
3761923
[courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2021]
“In 1923, the land of Palestine, previously under the control of the Ottoman Empire, was made a British Mandate by the League of Nations.”
3777/11/1927
[zionistarchives.org.il, accessed 2024]
“A strong earthquake struck Palestine on July 11, 1927 causing the loss of many lives and severe damage. Lasting seven seconds, it occurred shortly after 3 p.m. during a hamsin when hot winds blew in from the east. The panic-stricken population fled their collapsing homes.”
3788/1929
[jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]
“The Arab riots that erupted in 1929 – also known as the Western Wall Riots – were the result of disputes between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem. Demonstrations escalated to weeks of riots and violence beginning in August of 1929.”
3791929
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Al-Buraq Uprising Takes Place, The First Mass Protests Against Increased Jewish Immigration To Palestine”
3808/22/1929
[jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]
A reported fight over prayer service on the Temple Mount ended with the deaths of three Jews and three Arabs
3818/23/1929
[jstor.org, accessed 2024]
On 8/23/1929, Arab members of Hebron massacred 67 of the community of Jews, and riots continued until 8/29/1929, leading to death of 133 Jews and 116 others.
3826/17/1930
[jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]
Three Arabs convicted in the Hebron Massacre were put to death
3831933
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Palestinians riot amid sudden rise in Jewish immigration from Nazi persecution in Germany.”
3841933
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“With the Nazi seizure of power in Germany between 1933 and 1936, 30,000 to 60,000 European Jews arrived on the shores of Palestine.”
38512/26/1933
[jus.uio.no, accessed 2024]
Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States
Date enacted: 1933-12-26
In force: 1934-12-26
Excerpt: “The Governments represented in the Seventh International Conference of American States:
Wishing to conclude a Convention on Rights and Duties of States, have appointed the following Plenipotentiaries: …
Who, after having exhibited their Full Powers, which were found to be in good and due order, have agreed upon the following:
Article 1
The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications:
a. a permanent population;
b. a defined territory;
c. government; and
d. capacity to enter into relations with the other states.
Article 2
The federal state shall constitute a sole person in the eyes of international law.
Article 3
The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by the other states. …”
3861935
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Izz Ad-Din Al-Qassam, A Revolutionary Leader In Palestine, Is Killed By British Forces”
3871936
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Six-Month Long General Strike Takes Place In Palestine, To Protest Jewish Immigration”
3881936-1939
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Palestinian rebellion against the British Mandate and Jewish immigration.”
3891936 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1936–1939 – The Great Arab Revolt.”
3901937
[courses.lumenlearning.com,, accessed 2024]
The Peel Commission Plan
“In 1937, following a six-month Arab General Strike and armed insurrection that aimed to pursue national independence and secure the country from foreign control, the British established the Peel Commission. [‘A British Royal Commission of Inquiry headed by Lord Peel, appointed in 1936 to investigate the causes of unrest in Mandatory Palestine. It was administered by Britain following the six-month-long Arab general strike in Mandatory Palestine.’] The Jewish population had been attacked during the Arab revolt, leading to the idea that the two populations could not be reconciled. The Commission concluded that the Mandate had become unworkable, and recommended Partition into an Arab state linked to Transjordan, a small Jewish state, and a mandatory zone. To address problems arising from the presence of national minorities in each area, the Commission suggested a land and population transfer involving the transfer of some 225,000 Arabs living in the envisaged Jewish state and 1,250 Jews living in a future Arab state, a measure deemed compulsory ‘in the last resort.’ The Palestinian Arab leadership rejected partition as unacceptable, given the inequality in the proposed population exchange and the transfer of one-third of Palestine, including most of its best agricultural land, to recent immigrants. The Jewish leaders, Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion, persuaded the Zionist Congress to lend provisional approval to the Peel recommendations as a basis for further negotiations. In a letter to his son in October 1937, Ben-Gurion explained that partition would be a first step to “possession of the land as a whole.”
The British Woodhead Commission was set up to examine the practicality of partition. The Peel plan was rejected and two possible alternatives were considered.
3911937
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“UK Peel Commission Report publicly recognizes conflict’s irreconcilable terms and recommends partition of Palestine.”
3921937
[courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2024]
“During WWI, the British made conflicting promises to the Arab and Jewish populations of Palestine.
In 1937, following a six-month-long Arab General Strike, the British established the Peel Commission, which concluded that the Mandate was not working and proposed a partition of Palestine into independent Jewish and Arab States. The proposal was rejected by the Palestinians.”
3931938
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Armed Zionist Group, Irgun, Launches A Series Of Attacks Against Palestinians.”
3941938
[courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2024]
“In 1938 the British government issued a policy statement declaring that ‘the political, administrative and financial difficulties involved in the proposal to create independent Arab and Jewish States inside Palestine are so great that this solution of the problem is impracticable.’ Representatives of Arabs and Jews were invited to London for the St. James Conference, which proved unsuccessful.”
39511/9/1938
[avalon.law.yale.edu, accessed 2024]
British White Paper of 1939
“In the statement on Palestine, issued on 9 November, 1938, His Majesty’s Government announced their intention to invite representatives of the Arabs of Palestine, of certain neighboring countries and of the Jewish Agency to confer with them in London regarding future policy. …”
3961939
[ducksters.com, courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2024]
World War II begins. The British limit the immigration of Jews into Palestine. “During the war 6 million Jewish people will be killed by Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany in the Holocaust.”
3971939
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Britain Smashes The Three Year-Long Arab Revolt”
3981939
[courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2024]
“MacDonald White Paper of May 1939 declared that it was ‘not part of [the British government’s] policy that Palestine should become a Jewish State,’ and sought to limit Jewish immigration to Palestine and restricted Arab land sales to Jews. However, the League of Nations commission held that the White Paper was in conflict with the terms of the Mandate as put forth in the past. The outbreak of the Second World War suspended any further deliberations. The Jewish Agency hoped to persuade the British to restore Jewish immigration rights and cooperated with the British in the war against Fascism. Aliyah Bet was organized to spirit Jews out of Nazi-controlled Europe despite British prohibitions. The White Paper also led to the formation of Lehi, a small Jewish organization that opposed the British.”
3991942
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“US Zionists meet in NY and adopt the ‘Biltmore Programme’, calling for establishment of Palestine as a Jewish Commonwealth and for unlimited immigration.”
4003/22/1945
[courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2024]
Arab League “A regional organization of Arab countries in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Arabia. It was formed in Cairo on March 22, 1945 with six members: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.”
4016/26/1945
[treaties.un.org, accessed 2024]
Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice
“Chapter I Purposes and Principles … 2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace; …”
“CHAPTER IX INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COOPERATION Article 55 With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples …”
4028/1945
[courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2024]
“After World War II, in August 1945 President Truman asked for the admission of 100,000 Holocaust survivors into Palestine, but the British maintained limits on Jewish immigration in line with the 1939 White Paper. The Jewish community rejected the restriction on immigration and organized an armed resistance. These actions and United States pressure to end the anti-immigration policy led to the establishment of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry.”
4034/1946
[courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2024]
“In April 1946, the Committee reached a unanimous decision for the immediate admission of 100,000 Jewish refugees from Europe into Palestine, a repeal of the White Paper restrictions of land sale to Jews, that the country be neither Arab nor Jewish, and the extension of U.N. Trusteeship. U.S. endorsed the Commission findings concerning Jewish immigration and land purchase restrictions, while the U.K. conditioned its implementation on U.S. assistance in case of another Arab revolt. In effect, the British continued to carry out White Paper policy. The recommendations triggered violent demonstrations in the Arab states and calls for a Jihad and an annihilation of all European Jews in Palestine.”
4047/22/1946
[remix.aljazeera.com, adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Irgun Bombs The King David Hotel In Jerusalem, Killing 91 People”
4051947
[courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2024]
“By 1947, the British announced their desire to terminate the Palestine Mandate and placed the Question of Palestine before the United Nations, which developed a non-binding recommendation for independent Arab and Jewish states. … The proposal was rejected by the Palestinians and civil war broke out.”
4061947
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“UN Adopts Resolution 181, A Partition Plan For Palestine. Palestinians Reject It”
4071947
[un.org, accessed accessed 2024]
“The Arab world rejected the plan, arguing that it was unfair and violated the UN Charter.” [un.org, accessed 5/10/2024]

6/26/1945 – Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice
“Chapter I Purposes and Principles … 2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace; …”
“CHAPTER IX INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COOPERATION Article 55 With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples …”
[treaties.un.org, accessed 5/10/2024]
4081/4/1947
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Jaffa Municipality and Welfare Center … 17 Arab civilians were killed by attack by Lehi”
4092/14/1947
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Britain gives UN responsibility for Palestine”
4105/15/1947
[courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2024]
“By 1947, the British announced their desire to terminate the Palestine Mandate and placed the Question of Palestine before the United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations. The UN created UNSCOP (the UN Special Committee on Palestine) on May 15, 1947, with representatives from 11 countries. UNSCOP conducted hearings and surveyed the situation in Palestine, then issued a report on August 31 recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem placed under international administration.”
4119/1947
[courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2024]
“In September 1947, the British government announced that the Mandate for Palestine would end at midnight on May 14, 1948.”
41211/29/1947
[courses.lumenlearning.com, accessed 2024]
“On November 29, the UN General Assembly voted 33 to 13, with 10 abstentions, to adopt a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of the Plan of Partition. The division was to take effect on the date of British withdrawal. The partition plan required that the proposed states grant full civil rights to all people within their borders regardless of race, religion, or gender. Both the United States and Soviet Union supported the resolution. The five members of the Arab League, who were voting members at the time, voted against the Plan.
The Jewish Agency, the Jewish state-in-formation, accepted the plan, and nearly all Jews in Palestine rejoiced at the news.
The partition plan was rejected out of hand by Palestinian Arab leadership and by most of the Arab population. Meeting in Cairo on November and December 1947, the Arab League adopted a series of resolutions endorsing a military solution to the conflict.
Britain announced that it would accept the partition plan, but refused to enforce it, arguing it was not accepted by the Arabs. Britain also refused to share the administration of Palestine with the UN Palestine Commission during the transitional period. …
Some Jewish organizations also opposed the proposal. Irgun leader Menachem Begin announced, ‘The partition of the Homeland is illegal. It will never be recognized. The signature by institutions and individuals of the partition agreement is invalid. It will not bind the Jewish people. Jerusalem was and will forever be our capital. Eretz Israel will be restored to the people of Israel. All of it. And for ever.’ These views were publicly rejected by the majority of the nascent Jewish state.
Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the UN plan was not implemented.”
41311/29/1947
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]

Resolution 181
UN Partition Plan
“The UN General Assembly passes Resolution 181 calling for the partition of the Palestinian territories into two states, one Jewish and one Arab. The resolution also envisions an international, UN-run body to administer Jerusalem. The Palestinian territories had been under the military and administrative control of the United Kingdom (known as a mandate) since the 1917 defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I. Civil strife and violence between the Jewish and Arab communities of the Palestinian territories intensifies.”
41412/31/1947
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“the Baldat al-Sheikh massacre on December 31, 1947, killing up to 70 Palestinians”
41512/1947
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“In less than six months, from December 1947 to mid-May 1948, Zionist armed groups expelled about 440,000 Palestinians from 220 villages.”
41612/31/1947
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Balad al-Shaykh … 31 December – 1 January 1948: 14 civilians, of whom 10 were women and children were killed in the second attack by the Haganah.”
4171947 (circa)
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Between 1947 and 1949, at least 750,000 Palestinians from a 1.9 million population were made refugees beyond the borders of the state.”
4181/1948
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Armed Zionist Group, Haganah, Bombs The Semiramis Hotel In Jerusalem. More Than 20 People Are Killed”
4191/5/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Semiramis Hotel, Jerusalem … the Haganah blew up the hotel; 12 Arab civilians were killed, among them 4 women and 5 children.”
4202/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Qisarya … the 4th Battalion of the Palmah forces, under the command of Yosef Tabenkin, conquered Qisarya. According to historian Uri Milstein, all those who did not escape from the village were murdered.”
4212/14/1948
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“… the Sa’sa’ massacre on February 14, 1948, when 16 houses were blown up and 60 people lost their lives”
4222/20/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Ramle … an attack by the Irgun, killing 6 Arab civilians and wounding 31. Among the killed were 4 children.”
4233/12/1948 (circa)
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Al-Husayniyya, 12 March and 16 – 17 March 1948: the Palmah 3rd Battalion twice attacked the village in upper Galilee. In the first attack, 15 Arabs were killed, including 10 women and children and 20 seriously wounded. In the second raid more than 30 Arab civilians were killed.”
4244/1948
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Deir Yassin massacre: Zionist paramilitary groups kill hundreds of Palestinian Arabs in Deir Yassin, a village near Jerusalem.”
4254/9/1948
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“… the Deir Yassin massacre on April 9, 1948, when about 110 Palestinian men, women and children were slaughtereds”
4264/12/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Nasr al-Din … a widely document massacre by the Haganah.”
4275/4/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Safad … a few days before the conquest of Safad, some 37 young men were among the 70 Arab detainees massacred by two Palmah 3rd Battalion soldiers.”
4285/14/1948
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Israel Declares Independence
“Israel declares its independence as the British rule ends. Sparked by Israel’s declaration of independence, the first Arab-Israeli War begins. Egypt (supported by Saudi Arabian, Sudanese, and Yemeni troops), Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria invade Israel. The fighting continues until 1949, when Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria sign armistice agreements.” [world101.cfr.org, accessed 4/9/2024]

“The State Of Israel Is Created, Sparking Regional Conflict. The Us And Soviet Union Recognise Israel Immediately” [remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 4/9/2024]
4295/14/1948
[jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]
“On the day the British Mandate over Palestine expired – Friday, May 14, 1948 – the Jewish People’s Council gathered at the Tel Aviv Museum to declare the establishment of the State of Israel. David Ben-Gurion created the Council with representatives from a broad swath of the yishuv, including some of his rivals. They were all required to Hebraicize their names, so, for example, Golda Meyerson became Golda Meir.”
4305/14/1948
[en.wikipedia.org, 4/28/2024]
“1948 May 14–1949 January 7 – The 1948 Arab–Israeli War: a large-scale war between Israel and five Arab countries and the Palestinian-Arabs. The war results in an Israeli victory, with Israel annexing territory beyond the borders of the proposed Jewish state and into the borders of the proposed Arab state and West Jerusalem. Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt signed the 1949 Armistice Agreements with Israel. The Gaza Strip and the West Bank, were occupied by Egypt and Transjordan, respectively, until 1967. In 1951, the UN Conciliation Commission for Palestine estimated that some 711,000 Palestinian refugees were displaced by the war.”
4315/14/1948
[warsawinstitute.org, accessed 2024]
On 5/14/1948, Israel declared its independence.
David Ben-Gurion was appointed Prime Minister.
4325/14/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Abu Shusha … evidence of a large-scale massacre.”
4335/15/1948
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“The British Mandate ended at midnight, and on May 15, the Israeli state came into being.”
4345/15/1948
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Every year on May 15, Palestinians around the world, numbering about 12.4 million, mark the Nakba, or ‘catastrophe’, referring to the ethnic cleansing of Palestine and the near-total destruction of Palestinian society in 1948.”
4355/15/1948
[encyclopedia.com, accessed 2024]
On 5/15/1948, the Arab armies of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and Lebanon invaded Israel. Numbers vary on the deaths on each side, as well as the end dates including 7/20/1949, but over 4,500 Israeli soldiers and 2,000 civilians were killed, and approx. 13,000 Palestinians died in the conflict.
4365/18/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Acre … according to a United Nations Observer from France, Lieutenant Petite, at least 100 Palestinians were murdered.”
4375/20/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Kabri … the Carmeli Brigade conquered the village of Kabri. One of the Israeli soldiers, Yehuda Rashef, got hold of a few youngsters, ordered them to fill up some ditches and then lined them up and fired at them with a machine gun. A few died but some of the wounded managed to escape.”
4385/22/1948 (circa)
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Al-Tantura, 22 – 23 May 1948: between 70 and 200 Palestinian civilians were killed … in a large-scale, well-planned massacre; the atrocities were perpetrated by the 33rd Battalion of the Alexandroni Brigade of the IDF.”
4397/11/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Lydda, 11-12 July 1948: … Dozens of unarmed civilians who were detained in the Dahmash Mosque and church premises of the town were gunned down and murdered. … somewhere between 250 and 400 Arabs were killed in this IDF massacre; and an estimated 350 more died in the subsequent expulsion and forced march of the townspeople.”
4408/1948
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Stern Gang Assassinates Folke Bernadotte, A Swedish Diplomat And The Un-Appointed Mediator In Palestine”
4418/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Asdud, end August 1948: the Israeli army murdered 10 Arab fellahin in cold blood.”
4428/29/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Suqrir … 10 Arabs were killed by the Giva Brigade of the IDF”
44310/29/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Safsaf … 50-70 were killed by the IDF”
44410/29/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Al-Dawayma … 80-100 were killed by the IDF.”
44510/30/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Saliha … 70-80 were killed by the IDF.”
44610/30/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Majd El-Krum … 9 people, including 2 women, were murdered by the IDF”
44710/30/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Eilabun … 13 were murdered by the Golani Brigade of the IDF”
44810/1948
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“Hula … 35-58 were killed by the Cameli Brigade of the IDF”
44911/12/1948
[un.org, accessed 2024]
The UN General Assembly called for refugee return, property restitution and compensation.

Palestine question – UN Mediator report, Conciliation Commission to be established, Jerusalem status, refugees – GA resolution 194

194 (III). Palestine — Progress Report of the United Nations Mediator

In the report: “11. Resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible;”
45012/11/1948
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
UN Addresses Palestinian Displacement
“Over the course of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, at least seven hundred thousand Palestinian refugees flee their homes in an exodus known to Palestinians as the nakba (Arabic for ‘catastrophe’). Israel wins the war, retaining the territory provided to it by the United Nations and capturing some of the areas designated for the imagined future Palestinian state. Israel gains control of West Jerusalem, Egypt gains the Gaza Strip, and Jordan gains the West Bank and East Jerusalem, including the Old City and its historic Jewish quarter. In 1948, the UN General Assembly passes Resolution 194, which calls for the repatriation of Palestinian refugees. The Palestinians will later point to Resolution 194 as having established a ‘right of return’ for Palestinian refugees and their descendants. The specific parameters of that return are debated in the decades that follow, including among many descendants from the 1948 refugees and the three hundred thousand Palestinians who will flee their homes during the June 1967 war.” [world101.cfr.org, accessed 4/9/2024]

“UN General Assembly Passes Resolution 194, Affirming The Right Of Return Of Palestinian Refugees” [remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 4/9/2024]

4511949

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]

“The first Knesset (Israeli assembly) is held. Israel becomes a member of the United Nations.”
4521/25/1949
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Israel’s first national election; David Ben-Gurion elected Prime Minister”
4532/1949
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
1949 February – July “Armistice Agreements Are Signed Between Israel And Its Neighbouring Arab Countries: Lebanon, Syria, Jordan And Egypt”
4542/24/1949
[avalon.law.yale.ed, accessed 2024]
Egyptian-Israeli General Armistice Agreement, February 24, 1949
“Preamble
The Parties to the present Agreement, responding to the Security Council resolution of 16 November 1948 calling upon them, as a further provisional measure under Article 40 of the Charter of the United Nations and in order to facilitate the transition from the present truce to permanent peace in Palestine, to negotiate an Armistice; having decided to enter into negotiations under United Nations Chairmanship concerning the implementation of the Security Council resolutions of 4 and 16 November 1948; (2) and having appointed representatives empowered to negotiate and conclude an Armistice Agreement; …”
4553/23/1949

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Israel and Lebanon sign an armistice agreement.”
4564/3/1949

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Israel and Jordan sign an armistice agreement.”
4575/1949
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“UNGA adopts Resolution 273 (III) admitting Israel as UN member.”
4587/20/1949

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Israel and Syria sign an armistice agreement.”
45912/1949
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“UN Establishes Unrwa, An Agency For Palestinian Refugees”
4601950

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Spring – Jordan annexes the West Bank.”
4611950
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Israel moves its capital from Tel Aviv to the western part of Jerusalem, in defiance of UN resolutions, and the West Bank is brought formally under Jordanian control.”
4621950
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“… 1950, the remaining 2,500 Palestinian residents of the city of Majdal were forced into the Gaza Strip, about 2,000 inhabitants of Beer el-Sabe were expelled to the West Bank, and some 2,000 residents of two northern villages were driven into Syria. By the mid-1950s, the Palestinian population inside Israel had become about 195,000. “
4635/1950
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Operation Ali Baba; brings 113,000 Iraqi Jews to Israel”
4649/1950
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Operation Magic Carpet; 47,000 Yemeni Jews to Israel”
4651950 (circa)
[en.wikipedia.org, 4/28/2024]
“Palestinian Fedayeen insurgency (1950s–1960s) – Palestinian attacks and reprisal operations carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during the 1950s and 1960s. These actions were in response to constant fedayeen incursions during which Arab guerrillas infiltrated from Syria, Egypt, and Jordan into Israel to carry out attacks against Israeli civilians and soldiers. The policy of the reprisal operations was exceptional due to Israel’s declared aim of getting a high ‘blood cost’ among the enemy side which was believed to be necessary in order to deter them from committing future attacks.”
4668/28/1953
[cjpme.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli attack led by Ariel Sharon’s military unit led to the death of approximately 50 civilians in the Al-Bureij refugee camp
46710/14/1953
[un.org, accessed 2024]
Jordanian October 14 and 15 an Israeli unit raided the West Bank town of Qibya in October 1953, killing 69 men, women, and children
46812/16/1953
[un.org, accessed 2024]
Jordanians killed two Israeli soldiers on patrol in the Beit Govrin area
4691/27/1954
[un.org, accessed 2024]
A member of the Jordanian irregular forces killed an Israeli policeman near Beit Kika
4701/27/1954
[un.org, accessed 2024]
Jordanian forces killed a member of an Israel police patrol near Lifta on the northern outskirts of Jerusalem
4712/14/1954
[un.org, accessed 2024]
Jordanian forces killed an Israeli villager on watch duty at Mahassia near Hartuv in Jerusalem
4723/7/1954
[un.org, accessed 2024]
An Arab Legion attack on an Israel border patrol led to the death of an Israeli guard, and the Jordanian government was considered responsible
4733/10/1954
[un.org, accessed 2024]
A Jordanian mine killed an Israeli soldier, injured three others, in a vehicle they were riding in near Beit Govrin
4743/17/1954
[un.org, accessed 2024]
Arab gunmen shot and killed 11 Israelis on a bus from Elath to Beersheba near the Scorpion Pass in the Negev Desert of Israel
4753/26/1954
[un.org, accessed 2024]
Jordanians killed a village watchman in Kissalon
4761956
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel Massacres Palestinians In The Villages Of Qalqilya, Kufr Qassem And Khan Younis”
47710/29/1956
[history.state.gov, accessed 2024]
The Suez Crisis
“The Suez Crisis began on October 29, 1956, when Israeli armed forces pushed into Egypt toward the Suez Canal, a valuable waterway that controlled two-thirds of the oil used by Europe.
In July of that year, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the canal. The Israelis were joined by French and British forces, which damaged their relationships with the United States and nearly brought the Soviet Union into the conflict. In the end, Egypt emerged victorious, and the British, French and Israeli governments withdrew their troops in late 1956 and early 1957. The event was a pivotal event among Cold War superpowers.”
47810/29/1956 / 11/7/1956
[testbook.com, accessed 2024]
Suez Crisis (Sinai War) – Israel, along with Britain and France, invaded Egypt in response to Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal. International pressure, including from the United States and the Soviet Union, forced the withdrawal of the invading forces. More than 1,000 Egyptians, 231 Israelis, 16 British, and 10 French deaths
47910/29/1956

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1956 October 29–November 5 – The Sinai Campaign. This war followed Egypt’s decision of 26 July 1956 to nationalize the Suez Canal. Initiated by United Kingdom and France, the war was conducted in cooperation with Israel, and aimed at occupying the Sinai Peninsula, with the Europeans regaining control over the Suez Canal. Although the Israeli occupation of the Sinai was successful, the US and USSR forced it to abandon this conquest. Israel, however, managed to re-open the Straits of Tiran and secure its southern border.”
48010/10/1959
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Creation of Fatah”
4811/1964
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Creation of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)”
4826/2/1964 [jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]Creation of the Palestinian Liberation Organization during the Arab League Summit in Cairo
4836/2/1964 [jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]“Creation of the Palestinian Liberation Organization during the Arab League Summit in Cairo” [jewishvirtuallibrary.org]

“The Palestinian Liberation Organisation Is Formed In Cairo” [remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 4/9/2024]

“During the Arab League Summit in 1964, Palestinians came together to create one central organization – the PLO. The PLO’s Palestine National Council (PNC) was first comprised of Palestinian civilians and helped define the group’s goals, which included the destruction of Israel. The organization’s first chairman was Ahmad Shuqayrī.” [history.com, accessed 4/14/2024]
4841/1/1965
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Fatah first major attack: try to sabotage Israel’s water system”
4851966
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel Massacres Palestinians In The Village Of As-Samu’”
4861967
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel Occupies The Rest Of Historic Palestine, Including The Gaza Strip And The West Bank, As Well As The Syrian Golan Heights And The Egyptian Sinai”
4871967
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“The UN Security Council Passes Resolution 242 Calling On Israel To Withdraw From Territories It Occupied In 1967”
4885/15/1967
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“May 15-22, 1967
Egyptian Mobilization in the Sinai/Closure of the Tiran Straits”
4896/5/1967
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
The Six-Day War – 6/5/1967 – 6/10/1967
“Israel and several of its Arab neighbors fight the Six-Day War. Israel wins a decisive victory: it suffers seven hundred casualties; its adversaries suffer nearly twenty thousand. Israel emerges with control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip—areas inhabited primarily by Palestinians—as well as all of East Jerusalem. Israel also takes control of Syria’s Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula, which is part of Egypt. Israel will stay in the Sinai Peninsula until April 1982.”
4906/5/1967

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1967 June 5–10 – The Six-Day War between Israel and all of its neighboring countries: Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon which were aided by other Arab countries. The war lasted for six days and concluded with Israel expanding its territory significantly — Gaza Strip and Sinai from Egypt, the West Bank and Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.”
4916/8/1967
[cia.gov, accessed 2024]
CIA reported Israel attacked USS Liberty, a US Naval technical research ship off the Sinai Peninsula, leading to the death of 10
49211/22/1967
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
UN Security Council Resolution Calls for Israeli Withdrawal
“The UN Security Council passes Resolution 242 calling for Israeli ‘withdrawal … from territories occupied in the recent conflict’ and for the termination of “states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgement of the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and political independence of every state in the area and the right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries.” The resolution establishes the concept of land for peace.”
4931968
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Establishment of UN Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories.”
4944/4/1968
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Establishment of Jewish settlement in Hebron”
4957/18/1968
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Hijacking of El Al airliner by PLO”
4961969

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]

“Golda Meir is elected Prime Minister. She is the first woman prime minister of Israel.”
4972/1/1969
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“February 1-4, 1969
Arafat becomes PLO Chairman”
4983/8/1969
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“War of Attrition begins, lasts to August 1970”
4991970
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel Attacks Palestinian Fighters During ‘Black September’ In Jordan”
5001971 (circa)
[en.wikipedia.org, 4/28/2024]
“Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon (1971–1982) – The PLO relocated to South Lebanon from Jordan, staged attacks on the Galilee, and used South Lebanon as a base for international operations. In 1978, Israel launches Operation Litani – the first Israeli large-scale invasion of Lebanon, which was carried out by the Israel Defense Forces in order to expel PLO forces from the territory. Continuing ground and rocket attacks, and Israeli retaliations, eventually escalate into the 1982 War.”
5019/5/1972
[britannica.com, accessed 2024]
Munich Olympics Massacre – On 9/5/1972 through 9/6/1972 five members of a Palestinian terrorist group were killed after attempting to kidnap members of Israel’s Olympic Team in Munich, leading to the deaths of 11 Israelis and another person.
5029/5/1972
[france24.com, accessed 2024]
Massacre at the 1972 Olympic Games
“Palestinian militants took 11 members of the Israeli delegation hostage inside the Olympic village in Munich, Germany, on September 5, 1972. The terrorists, who claimed to be part of the Black September movement, were demanding the liberation of Palestinian prisoners held in Israel. After killing two hostages, they negotiated for a plane to take them out of the country. But a German police operation to rescue the Israelis went horribly wrong. In the end, all the hostages were killed, along with five of the eight attackers and a German police officer.”
5031973
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Following the Middle East war of October, the UN Security Council passes resolution 338 calling for ceasefire, implementation of res. 242, negotiations between parties.”
50410/3/1973
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
The Yom Kippur War
“Another Arab-Israeli war, known variously as the Yom Kippur War, the Ramadan War, and the October War, is fought when Egypt and Syria attempt to retake the Israeli-occupied Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights. Cold War tensions spike as the Soviet Union aids Egypt and Syria and the United States aids Israel. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries begins an oil embargo on countries that support Israel, and the price of oil skyrockets. The fighting ends after a UN-sponsored cease-fire (negotiated by the United States and the Soviet Union) takes hold. The UN Security Council passes Resolution 338, which calls for implementing UN Security Council Resolution 242.”
50510/6/1973
[american.edu, accessed 2024]
On 10/6/1973 through 10/26/1973, Egypt and Syria launched a losing operation against Israel on Yom Kippur that lasted about three weeks. Some names for the war include Yom Kippur War and Ramadan War. 2,656 Israeli soldiers were killed, and “around 15,000 Eqyptians killed and 3,500 Syrians killed.” [kiro7.com, accessed 4/29/2024]
50610/6/1973

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1973 October 6–24 – The Yom Kippur War was fought. The war began with a surprise joint attack on two fronts by the armies of Syria (in the Golan Heights) and Egypt (in the Suez Canal), deliberately initiated during the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. The Egyptian Army got back Sinai that was occupied by the Israeli armies for almost 7 years.”
50710/17/1973
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Arab Oil Embargo declared”
50810/22/1973
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 338”
5091974

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“The PLO is allowed to represent the Palestinian Arab refugees in the UN as their sole political representative organisation.”
5101974
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“The UN General Assembly and the Arab League recognize the PLO as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.
General Assembly reaffirms inalienable rights of Palestinian people to self-determination, independence and sovereignty, and refugee return (resolution 3236).”
5115/15/1974
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Terrorist Attack on school in northern Israeli town of Ma’a lot”
5121975
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“In 1975 the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People (CEIRPP) is founded by Resolution 3376 of the UNGA.”
51311/10/1975
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“‘Zionism is Racism’ resolution passed by the UN”
5141976
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel Confiscates Thousands Of Hectares Of Land From Palestinian Citizens. Mass Protests Organised In Response Were Brutally Put Down; Now ‘Land Day’ Is Commemorated Every Year”
5151977
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Pursuant to UNGA Resolution 32/40 B, International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People is celebrated annually on 29 November.”
51611/19/1977
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Egyptian President Anwar Sadat visits Jerusalem”
5171978
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Egypt And Israel Sign The Camp David Accords”
5189/1/1978
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
The Camp David Accords
“Israel and Egypt sign the Camp David Accords, which establish a basis for a peace treaty between the two countries. The accords also commit the Israeli and Egyptian governments, along with other parties, to negotiate the disposition of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.”
5199/18/1978

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“Israel and Egypt sign a comprehensive peace agreement at Camp David which included a condition of Israel’s withdrawal from the Rest of Sinai.”
5201979
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“The UNGA re-designates the Special Unit on Palestinian Rights as the Division for Palestinian Rights (Resolution 34/65 D).”
5213/1979
[history.state.gov, accessed 2024]
“The Camp David Accords, signed by President Jimmy Carter, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in September 1978, established a framework for a historic peace treaty concluded between Israel and Egypt in March 1979.”
5223/26/1979
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Israel Withdraws From the Sinai Peninsula
“Egypt and Israel sign a peace treaty, the first between Israel and one of its Arab neighbors. The treaty commits Israel to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula and evacuate its settlements there. The termination of the state of war between Egypt and Israel leads to the normalization of diplomatic and commercial relations between the two countries. Israel’s prime minister and Egypt’s president exchange letters reaffirming their commitment—outlined in the Camp David Accords—to negotiate the disposition of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.”
5231980

[ducksters.com, accessed 2024]

“The Shekel becomes the official currency of Israel replacing the Israeli lira.”
5241980
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Israeli Knesset enacts the so-called ‘Basic Law’ on Jerusalem, proclaiming that “Jerusalem, whole and united” is the capital of Israel; the Security Council and GA resolution 35/169 E censure this law.”
5251981
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“UNESCO adds the Old City of Jerusalem to the UNESCO World Heritage Site list.
UN Security Council adopts resolution 497, calling on Israel to rescind action to annex the Golan Heights.”
5264/1981
[history.state.gov, accessed 2024]
“In April 1981, the Israeli Air Force attacked Syrian forces in Lebanon to prevent them from seizing the strategic Sannin ridge. Syria responded by deploying surface-to-air missiles into the Biqa‘ Valley, threatening Israel’s ability to monitor PLO forces in Lebanon. To avert war, Reagan sent emissary Philip Habib to the Middle East, but he failed to persuade the Syrians to withdraw the missiles. When fighting escalated between Israel and the PLO that July, the Reagan administration feared that Israel would invade Lebanon. Ultimately, Habib managed to negotiate a de facto ceasefire between Israel and the PLO.”
5276/7/1981
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Israel attacks Iraq’s Osirak nuclear reactor”
5281982
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“UN International Day Of Solidarity With The Palestinian People”
5291982
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Israel invades Lebanon with the intention of eliminating the PLO. After a ceasefire, PLO forces withdraw to neighboring countries. Despite guarantees of safety for Palestine refugees left behind, there are massacres at Sabra and Shatila camps.”
5306/6/1982
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Operation “Peace for the Galilee” launched; start of Lebanon War”
5316/5/1982
[idf.il, accessed 2024]
First Lebanon War – After Shlomo Argov, Israel’s ambassador to the United Kingdom, was shot in London on 6/3 and wounded, this event reportedly set off what is known as the First Lebanon War, Operation Peace for the Galilee, or Operation Shalom Hagalil. Dates differ and range from June 1982 to 1985. “According to the Defense Ministry, Israel suffered 1217 fatalities in the war itself, which lasted between 1982 and 1985.” [ynetnews.com, 4/29/2024]
5328/11/1982
[palquest.org, accessed 2024]
“On 6 June 1982, Israeli forces invaded Lebanon from the south until they reached the outskirts of Beirut. They imposed a siege on the city for nearly three months, which the joint Palestinian-Lebanese forces fiercely resisted. After intense diplomatic efforts, on 11 August, American envoy Philip Habib and Lebanese prime minister Shafik Wazzan reached an agreement stipulating that the PLO would evacuate its troops from West Beirut, under the supervision of a multinational force made up of American, French, and Italian forces.”
5339/1/1982
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“On 1 September, a few days after the last wave of Palestinian fighters had left Beirut, Yasir Arafat, President of the PLO, told the two French envoys who visited him at his headquarters in Tunis that ‘he was deeply concerned about the security of Palestinian civilians who remained in Beirut.’ He asked them to try to convince their government to keep a French military unit in Beirut past the set withdrawal date. After American and Italian units had withdrawn, the French unit was the last one left, but the French government decided to withdraw it on 11 September.”
5349/14/1982
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“On 14 September 1982, Bashir Gemayel, who the Lebanese parliament had elected President on 23 August 1982, was assassinated. Gemayel was the leader of the ‘Lebanese Forces,’ a militia affiliated to the Lebanese Phalanges Party. The Israeli army invaded West Beirut the next morning, on the pretext of maintaining security in the city. They also surrounded the Palestinian refugee camps, closed all roads leading to them, and prevented the residents from leaving. On the morning of 16 September, they began to intensify bombing on Shatila camp, especially the south entrance, where the massacre began.”
5359/16/1982
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Sabra and Shatila massacre: “The refugees were victims of the 1948 Nakba, or ‘catastrophe’ in Arabic, fleeing the violent ethnic cleansing of Palestine by Zionist militias as Israel was formed. But between September 16 and 18, 1982, the refugees, now living in Shatila and Sabra, along with Lebanese civilians, were attacked by a right-wing Lebanese militia, in coordination with the Israeli army. Between 2,000 and 3,500 people were killed.”
5369/28/1983
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“… on 28 September, a commission of inquiry to investigate ‘the atrocities committed by a unit in the Lebanese Forces against the civilian population in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps’; it was chaired by Judge Yitzhak Kahan , President of the Supreme Court. On 7 February 1983, the commission issued a report …”
5372/8/1983
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Kahan Report
5382/14/1983
[palquest.org, accessed 2024]
Ariel Sharon resigned his post as defense minister
5399/21/1983
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“On 21 September, the Lebanese National Assembly elected Amin Gemayel as president, successor to his brother Bashir, and from the beginning of the last week in September, Israeli units began to withdraw from West Beirut as the multinational force began to arrive in Beirut. French units deployed around Sabra camp, and Italian units deployed along the southern border of Shatila camp.”
54011/21/1984 (circa)

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“1984 November 21–1985 January 5 – Operation Moses: IDF forces conduct a secret operation in which approximately 8,000 Ethiopian Jews were brought to Israel from Sudan.”
5416/6/1985
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
Israel’s 3-Year War in Lebanon Ends, But Some Troops Remain Behind … “As of today, the third anniversary of the invasion, the war in Lebanon cost the lives of 654 Israeli soldiers, and brought wounds to 3,873 others. Four are still missing.”
54210/7/1985
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Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) attacked the Achille Lauro ship en route to Israel killing an American passenger
5431985 (circa)
[en.wikipedia.org, 4/28/2024]
“South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000) – Nearly 15 years of warfare between the Israel Defense Forces and its Lebanese Christian proxy militias against Lebanese Muslim guerrilla, led by Iranian-backed Hezbollah, within what was defined by Israelis as the ‘Security Zone’ in South Lebanon.”
5449/6/1986
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Abu Nidal organization attacked the Neveh Shalom synagogue in Istanbul, Turkey, killing 22 people
54510/7/1986
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Hijacking of Achille Lauro cruise ship”
5461987 (circa)

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“1987–1991 – The First Intifada: The first Palestinian uprising took place in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank against the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories.”
54711/25/1987
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Palestinian terrorists crossed into Israel from Lebanon, near Kiryat Shemona, on hang gliders, and killed six Israeli soldiers, wounding eight
54812/8/1987
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“Start of the First Intifada”
54912/9/1987
[makan.org.uk, accessed 2024]
12/9/1987 – 9/13/1993: First Intifada – Protests led to a war in the Gaza Strip and West Bank for five years until the Oslo Accords were signed, and the first reported Hamas attack on Israel resulted in one Israeli solider kisnapped and killed 2/16/1989.
55012/1/1987
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
First Intifada
“An Israeli driver kills four Palestinians in a car accident that sparks the first intifada, or uprising, against Israeli occupation in the West Bank and Gaza. The image of Palestinians throwing rocks at Israeli tanks becomes the enduring image of the intifada. Over the next six years, roughly 200 Israelis and 1,300 Palestinians are killed. A Palestinian cleric named Sheikh Ahmed Yassin establishes the militant group Hamas as an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood. Hamas endorses jihad as a way to regain territory for Muslims; the United States designates Hamas a foreign terrorist organization in 1997.” [world101.cfr.org, accessed 4/9/2024]

“The First Intifada Is Launched In The Occupied Palestinian Territory” [remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 4/9/2024]


5511988
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“The Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories in its 1988 report noted with concern the noticeable increase of aggressiveness in Jewish settlers’ behaviour towards the civilian Palestinian population of the occupied territory.”
5521988
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“The PLO Accepts Un Resolutions 242 And 338, Recognising The State Of Israel”
5531988
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“In July, Jordan renounces claims to the West Bank and recognizes PLO as ‘the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.’
In November, in Algiers, the Palestinian National Council adopts declaration of independence of the State of Palestine.
In December, PLO Chair Yasser Arafat addresses UN in Geneva; says Palestine National Council accepts UNSC Resolutions 242 and 338.”
5547/31/1988
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Jordan Surrenders Claims on the West Bank and East Jerusalem
“King Hussein of Jordan relinquishes his country’s claims to the West Bank and East Jerusalem in favor of the claims of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). In December of the same year, PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat denounces violence, recognizes Israel’s right to exist, and acknowledges UN Security Council Resolution 242 and the concept of land for peace. The United States responds to Arafat’s announcement by beginning direct talks with him, though it suspends the talks following a Palestinian terrorist attack against Israel.”
55511/15/1988
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“On November 15, 1988, the PLO proclaimed the ‘State of Palestine,’ a kind of government-in-exile…”
5564/2/1989
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“… on April 2, 1989, the PNC elected Arafat president of the new quasi-state. The PLO during this period also recognized United Nations Resolutions 242 and 338, thereby tacitly acknowledging Israel’s right to exist. It thus abandoned its long-standing goal of replacing Israel with a secular, democratic state in Palestine in favour of a policy accepting a two-state solution with separate Israeli and Palestinian states, with the latter occupying the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.”
5571991
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“Middle East peace conference in Madrid brings together all the parties to the Arab-Israeli conflict.”
5581/16/1991
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“Gulf War; Iraq launches SCUD missiles at Israel”
5595/24/1991

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“1991 May 24–25 – Operation Solomon: IDF forces conduct a secret operation in which approximately 14,400 Ethiopian Jews were brought to Israel within 34 hours in 30 IAF and El Al aircraft.”
56010/30/1991
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
The Madrid Peace Conference
“The Madrid Peace Conference begins, sponsored jointly by the United States and the Soviet Union. Israeli, Jordanian, Lebanese, Palestinian, and Syrian delegates attend the first negotiations among those parties. The talks proceed along bilateral tracks between Israel and its neighbors, though the Lebanese join the Syrian delegation and the Jordanian team includes Palestinian representatives. A multilateral track includes the wider Arab world and addresses regional issues. The talks last for two years without any breakthroughs.” [world101.cfr.org, accessed 4/9/2024]

“The Madrid Peace Conference Ends Without A Breakthrough” [remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 4/9/2024]

56112/16/1991
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“UN repeals “Zionism is Racism” resolution”
5621992
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“More Multilateral Talks Take Place, But The Palestinians Are No Closer To Statehood”
5631993
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Israel and the PLO sign the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements, also known the Oslo accords. Several ‘permanent status’ issues are deferred for future negotiations.”
5649/13/1993
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The Oslo Accords
“Secret negotiations in Norway result in the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements, also known as the Oslo Accords. Before the accords are signed, Israel and the PLO recognize each other in an exchange of letters. Israel and the PLO agree to the creation of the Palestinian Authority to temporarily administer the Gaza Strip and West Bank. Israel also agrees to begin withdrawing from parts of the West Bank, though large swaths of land and Israeli settlements remain under the Israeli military’s exclusive control. The Oslo Accords envision a peace agreement by 1999. Palestinian leader Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994 for their efforts on the Oslo Accords.”
5659/13/1993

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“The first Oslo Accords are signed at an official ceremony in Washington in the presence of Yitzhak Rabin for Israel, Yasser Arafat for PLO and Bill Clinton for the United States.”
56612/1/1993
[govinfo.gov, accessed 2024]
Hamas in a drive-by shooting north of Jerusalem killed a 19-year-old American
56712/30/1993
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Israel and Vatican sign ‘Fundamental Agreement'”
5681994
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“The Office of the UN Special Coordinator in the Occupied Territories (UNSCO) is established, and Mr. Terje Roed-Larsen of Norway is appointed as the first UN Special Coordinator.”
5692/25/1994
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“Jewish gunman kills 29 Palestinian worshippers in Hebron”
5704/6/1994
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“Afula suicide bombing, kills 8. In the next years, numerous suicide attacks were perpetrated in Israeli cities, including bus bombings, in restaurants, and malls across the country”
5715/4/1994
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
The Gaza-Jericho Agreement
“The Israelis and the Palestinians sign the Gaza-Jericho Agreement, which begins implementation of the Oslo Accords. The agreement provides for an Israeli military withdrawal from Gaza and Jericho, a town in the West Bank, and for a transfer of authority from Israeli administration to the newly formed Palestinian Authority. The agreement also establishes the structure and composition of the Palestinian Authority, its jurisdiction and legislative powers, a Palestinian police force, and relations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. Arafat returns to the Gaza Strip after a long absence.”
5725/13/1994
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“Israel withdraws from Jericho, followed by Gaza on May 18”
5737/1/1994
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“Arafat enters Gaza”
57410/9/1994
[deseret.com, accessed 2024]
Palestinian gunmen shot and killed an Israeli soldier and an Israeli-Arab, and wounded 13 others, in a nightclub in in the Nahalat Shiva neighborhood, Jerusalem, one mile from Secretary of State Warren Christopher’s hotel
57510/9/1994
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Hamas kidnapped and murdered a 19-year-old American
57610/9/1994
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Hamas kidnaps and kills an Israeli soldier Nachshon Wachsman”
57710/14/1994
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Rabin, Peres, and Arafat awarded Nobel Peace Prize”
57810/19/1994
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A Palestinian suicide bombing on the No. 5 bus on Dizengoff Street in Tel-Aviv killed 21 Israelis and one Dutch national
57910/26/1994
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Israel and Jordan Sign a Peace Treaty
“Israel and Jordan sign a peace treaty, settling their territorial dispute and agreeing to future cooperation in sectors such as trade and tourism. This is Israel’s second peace treaty with an Arab state. It accords special administrative responsibilities for Jerusalem’s Muslim holy places to Jordan.”
58011/11/1994
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Hamas suicide bicycle bomber killed three Israeli soldiers at Netzarim Junction in the Gaza Strip reportedly in retaliation for a car bomb that killed an Islamic Jihad leader on 11/2
58112/1/1994
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Transfer of West Bank administrative control to Palestinians”
5821995
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Israel and the PLO sign the Palestinian-Israeli Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (‘Oslo II)’.”
5834/9/1995
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Hamas and Islamic Jihad suicide bus bombers (two) in a van ran into a bus killing eight in Kfar Darom in the Gaza Strip, including a 20-year-old American from New Jersey
5846/25/1995
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Hamas / Islamic Jihad explosives-laden cart killed one in Neve Dekalim in Gaza Strip
5858/21/1995
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Hamas suicide bus bombing in Ramat Eshkol, Jerusalem, killed four, including a woman from Connecticut
5869/9/1995
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Palestinian terrorist(s) stabbed a Chicago woman in Ma’ale Michmash in the West Bank leading to the death of her unborn child
5879/28/1995
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Oslo II Accord
“Israeli and Palestinian negotiators sign the Interim Agreement, sometimes called Oslo II. It gives the Palestinians control over additional areas of the West Bank and defines the security, electoral, public administration, and economic arrangements that will govern those areas until a final peace agreement is reached in 1999.” [world101.cfr.org, accessed 4/9/2024]

“The PLO And Israel Sign An Interim Agreement Granting The Palestinians Some Autonomy In Certain Parts Of The West Bank And Gaza Strip (Oslo II)” [remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 4/9/2024]
58811/4/1995
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Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by Jewish extremist Yigal Amir
“Shortly after the rally at Tel Aviv’s Kings of Israel Square, later posthumously named after Rabin, Israeli right-wing extremist Yigal Amir shot the former prime minister three times, hitting Rabin twice as he was entering his vehicle.
Amir was sentenced to life in prison for the murder of the former prime minister and was later sentenced to an additional eight years for injuring Rabin’s bodyguard, who was hit by Amir’s third shot.”
58911/13/1995
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“Israel redeploys from Palestinian population centers”
5901/20/1996
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Palestinian general elections are held.
5912/25/1996
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Hamas suicide bomber killed one Israeli at a hitchhiking post outside Ashkelon
5922/25/1996
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Hamas suicide bus bombing on Jaffa Road near the Jerusalem Central Bus Station of bus #18 killed 24, with two later dying of their wounds, and two were Americans
5933/3/1996
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Hamas suicide bus bomber killed 19 (16 civilians and 3 soldiers) on bus #18 on Jaffa Street in Jerusalem in similar attack to 2/25/1996
5943/4/1996
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Hamas suicide nail bomber killed 13 Israelis, including a soldier, outside the Dizengoff Center in Tel Aviv
5954/11/1996
[hrw.org, accessed 2024]
4/11/1996 / 4/27/1996 : Operation Grapes of Wrath – Initiated by Israel against Lebanese guerrillas leading to approximately 154 civilians killed in Lebanon, and another 351 injured, with three Israeli women injured
5964/25/1996
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“Bowing to the insistent demands of Yasir Arafat, the main assembly of the Palestine Liberation Organization voted today to revoke the clauses in its 32-year-old charter that called for an armed struggle to destroy the Jewish state. … The vote was 504 in favor of amending the document and 54 against. Fourteen members abstained, and 97 of the 669 members of the council were absent, including members of radical movements who refused to attend any discussions on changing the charter. The vote was well over the two-thirds required to amend the charter.”
5975/13/1996
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A Palestinian terrorist(s) drive-by shooting resulted in the death of a 17-year-old New York City boy near Beit El, north of Jerusalem
5986/9/1996
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A Palestinian terrorist(s) killed an American in a drive by-shooting near Beit Shemesh, near Jerusalem
5999/24/1996
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“Palestinian ‘Tunnel Riots’ erupt”
6001997
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“Israel and the PLO sign the Hebron Protocol.”
6011/17/1997
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“Israel withdraws from Hebron”
6023/13/1997
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“Jordanian soldier kills 7 Israeli schoolgirls”
6033/21/1997
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Hamas satchel bombing at Apropo Café killed three Israelis, including a 16-week pregnant woman, and injured 48 others, in Tel Aviv
6041998
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“Israel and the PLO sign the Wye River Memorandum, which consists of steps to facilitate implementation of previous agreements.”
6055/15/1998
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“Palestinians commemorated their national tragedy of losing a homeland in an unofficial way for decades, but in 1998, the former President of the Palestinian Authority, Yasser Arafat, declared May 15 a national day of remembrance, on the 50th year since the Nakba.
Israel celebrates the day as its day of independence.”
60610/23/1998
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“On October 23, 1998, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasir Arafat signed the Wye River Memorandum which delineates parallel, incremental steps to be taken over a 12-week period to complete implementation of prior agreements.”
60710/29/1998
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A Palestinian suicide car bomber killed an Israeli soldier in a jeep escorting a bus with 40 elementary school students from Kfar Darom in the Gaza Strip
60811/20/1998
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel ceded control over a 200-square-mile patchwork of craggy hills, rock-strewn valleys and Arab villages to the Palestinian Authority today, its first pullback from occupied West Bank land since U.S.-brokered peace efforts stumbled nearly two years ago. The withdrawal, the first of three scheduled in the next three months, transferred 28 towns and villages around the northern West Bank city of Jenin to full or partial Palestinian control for the first time since they were captured by Israeli troops in 1967.”
60912/10/1998
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“Palestinians vote to change PLO charter in presence of President Bill Clinton”
61012/20/1998
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“On December 20, Israel froze Wye implementation until the Palestinians abandoned their call for a state with Jerusalem as its capital, curbed violence and incitement, accepted Israeli prisoner releases, collected and destroyed illegal weapons, and resumed security cooperation.”
6119/4/1999
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PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak signed the Sharm al-Shaykh Memorandum on September 4, 1999. Israel released 200 prisoners, among other aims.
6129/13/1999
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“Final status talks resumed ceremonially on September 13. The Palestinians gave Israel 30,000 police officers’ names. Israel released prisoners, opened a safe passage between the West Bank and Gaza and a major road in Hebron, and redeployed from more territory. In March, Israel completed its second redeployment. In May, Israeli soldiers fought Palestinian demonstrators and police.”
6132000
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“In July, the US President Clinton convenes a Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David which concludes without agreement.
Ariel Sharon’s al-Haram al-Sharif visit in September 2000 triggers the Second Palestinian Intifada.”
6142000 (circa)

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“2000–2005 (unclear) – The Second Intifada: The second Palestinian uprising took place in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank against the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian Territories. The uprising which began as massive protests carried out by Palestinians in the Palestinian Territories, soon turned into a violent Palestinian guerrilla campaign which included numerous suicide attacks carried out against Israeli civilians within the state of Israel.”
6155/23/2000
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Four years of conflict between Hezbollah and Israel ended when Israeli started troops pull out of Lebanon.
6165/24/2000
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“Israel withdraws from southern Lebanon”
6177/11/2000
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Camp David Summit
7/11/2000 – 7/25/2000: “President Bill Clinton hosts Israeli and Palestinian leaders for talks at Camp David. Reports indicate that Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak is prepared to accept, among other things, Palestinian sovereignty over some 91 percent of the West Bank and certain parts of Jerusalem. The deal would include a land swap in which some Israeli land would go to the Palestinians in compensation for the remaining 9 percent of the West Bank, which would go to Israel. Two weeks of intensive discussion, however, fails to produce an agreement. President Clinton blames Arafat for the failure. Before leaving office several months later, Clinton lays out proposals for both sides. Talks between them continue, but without success.” [world101.cfr.org, accessed 4/9/2024]

“The PLO And Israel Renew Final Status Negotiations At The Camp David II Summit” [remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 4/9/2024]
6189/28/2000
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The Second Intifada
“Israeli politicians, including Ariel Sharon, a controversial retired Israeli general, visit the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif. The Palestinians view the visit as an effort to change the status quo at the holy site. The ensuing demonstrations turn violent, marking the beginning of a second intifada. It will last until 2005 and be markedly more violent than the first intifada. Four thousand Palestinians and one thousand Israelis die.”
6199/29/2000
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“Outbreak of widespread Palestinian violence, “Second Intifada” begins. In the next years there were scores of suicide bombings on buses, restaurants, night clubs and city streets”
62010/6/2000
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Palestine declared day of rage in the Old City of Jerusalem, Israel responded to riots and 10 Palestinian are killed
62110/12/2000
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Palestinians kill two Israeli soldiers in Ramallah and Israel initiated air raids
62211/2/2000
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Islamic Jihad set off a car bomb killing two Israelis near the Mahane Yehuda market in Jerusalem, and injured 10
62311/9/2000
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An Israeli gunship missile targeted and killed Fatah militia leader Hussein Suyef Abeyat and two others
62411/20/2000
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A Palestinian roadside bomb exploded near a schoolbus killing two and wounding nine, including five children, and Israel bombed Palestinian targets in Gaza as a result
62511/22/2000
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A Palestinian bomb that exploded near a passing bus killed two Israelis in Hadera
62611/22/2000
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Israelis killed four Fatah members reportedly in response to a car bomb that killed two Israelis in Hadera
62712/10/2000 (circa)
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“DECEMBER 10-14 … More militants killed
Israel hit squads kill at least four militant Palestinian leaders.”
62812/22/2000
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A Palestinian suicide bomber injured three Israeli soldiers at the Mehola Junction roadside cafe in the northern Jordan Valley
6292001
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Outgoing US President Clinton proposes the Clinton Parameters for a permanent status agreement to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
Shortly afterwards, the Taba Summit is held between Israel and the Palestinian Authority but fails to resolve the ‘permanent status’ issues.”
6301/1/2001
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Hamas suicide car bombing near a bus stop in the shopping district in the center of Netanya injured 60
6313/4/2001
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Hamas suicide bomber killed three at a shopping mall in Netanya
6323/7/2001
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3/7/2001 – 4/11/2006: Likud leader Ariel Sharon becomes Prime Minister of Israel.
6333/8/2001
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Arafat requests start to Peace talks
6343/27/2001
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Hamas suicide bombing directed at a No. 6 bus at the French Hill junction in Jerusalem injured 28
6353/28/2001
[pbs.org, accessed 2024]
Israel killed two in helicopter strikes on Gaza and the West Bank
6364/29/2001
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Hamas suicide car bombing close to a school bus near Nablus in the West Bank led to no injuries, except the death of the bomber
6375/25/2001
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Two Islamic Jihad suicide car bombers injured 65 in the Hadera central bus station
6386/13/2001
[pbs.org, accessed 2024]
CIA Director George Tenet brokers cease-fire plan
6396/22/2001
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Hamas roadside jeep bombing killed two 19-year-old Israeli sargeants near Dugit in the Gaza Strip
6407/9/2001
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Hamas suicide bomber died in car explosion near the Kissufim crossing point in the southern Gaza Strip
6417/16/2001
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Islamic Jihad suicide bombing killed two Israeli soldiers, 19 and 20, and wounded 11, at a bus stop near the train station in Binyamina, halfway between Netanya and Haifa
6428/8/2001
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A Palestinian suicide car bomber injured a soldier at a roadblock near the B’kaot moshav in the northern Jordan Valley
6438/12/2001
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Islamic Jihad suicide bomber wounded 15 at a restaurant in Kiryat Motzkin in Haifa
6448/25/2001
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The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine killed three Israeli soldiers at a Gaza Strip Israeli army post
6458/27/2001
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Israeli troops killed the secretary-general of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) with missile strike in Ramallah
6469/4/2001
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Hamas suicide bomber posed as an ultra-Orthodox Jew and injured 20 in Hanevi’im Street near Bikur Holim hospital
6479/9/2001
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A Palestinian suicide bomber wounded 17 at the Beit Lid junction near Netanya, and reportedly was the one found dead
6489/26/2001
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Yasser Arafat and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres agree to work toward truce
64910/2/2001
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Hamas gunmen killed two Israelis in a Gaza Strip Jewish settlement
65010/17/2001
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Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine killed Israeli tourism minister Rehavam Zeevi
65111/26/2001
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Hamas suicide bomber posing as a worker wounded two border policemen at the Erez crossing point in the Gaza Strip
65212/12/2001
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Palestinian gunmen killed 10 Israelis on a bus in the West Bank near a Jewish settlement close to Nablus, and Israel responded with helicopter fire on Palestinian West Bank and Gaza buildings
6532002
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel Reoccupies Palestinian Cities In The West Bank In The Wake Of The Second Intifada”
6542002
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“The UN Security Council passes resolution 1397 affirming vision of a two-State solution to the conflict. The Quartet, consisting of the UN, the EU, the US, and Russia is established with a mandate to help mediate Israeli-Palestinian conflict and support Palestinian economic development and institution-building.
During a summit in Beirut, the League of Arab States adopts the Arab Peace Initiative.”
6551/4/2002
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“Israel intercepts massive Palestinian arms shipment on Karine A ship”
6561/5/2002
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Israel says it stopped 50 tons of Iranian supplied weapons to Palestine
6571/17/2002
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An Al Aqsa Brigades gunman killed six Israelis, injured at least 24, at a bat mitzvah party in Hadera, and the shooter was then killed in return
6581/27/2002
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
A female Fatah suicide bomber killed one Israeli and injured over 150 on Jaffa Road in the center of Jerusalem
6592/15/2002
[pbs.org, accessed 2024]
A Palestinian mine resulted in an Israeli tank being destroyed and the death of three tank crew and Palestinians reportedly killed an elite Israeli commando leader, reportedly resulting in Israel initiating an airstrike on a Palestinian police compound at Jabalya refugee camp in Gaza
6602/15/2002
[govinfo.gov, accessed 2024]
Palestinian terrorist(s) shot and killed an American citizen near Ramallah
6612/18/2002
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
An al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades suicide car bomber killed a policeman when stopped on the road between Maale Adumim settlement and Jerusalem in the West Bank
6622/20/2002
[pbs.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli assault on Palestinian Authority buildings in Gaza City resulted in 16 Palestinian deaths
6632/25/2002
[govinfo.gov, accessed 2024]
Palestinian terrorist(s) stabbed and killed a 25-year-old American in Abu Tor Peace Forest, Jerusalem
6642/27/2002
[embassies.gov.il]
A Palestinian suicide bomber died at the Maccabim roadblock on the Jerusalem-Modi’in highway, injuring three policemen
6652/28/2002
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“Backed by tanks and helicopter gunships, Israeli troops assaulted two densely populated Palestinian refugee camps in the West Bank today, touching off fierce gun battles that raged through the day and into the night. An Israeli soldier and a dozen Palestinian fighters and bystanders were killed. … The Israeli army issued a statement saying its operations in Nablus and Jenin were designed to arrest Palestinians wanted for terrorist attacks, sending a message that ‘there is no refuge for terror.’ But Israeli officials acknowledged that the soldiers at Balata and Jenin have not arrested the militants they had hoped to find.”
6663/3/2002
[pbs.org, accessed 2024]
An Al Aqsa Brigades sniper killed 10 Israelis at a checkpoint in the West Bank
6673/5/2002
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
Islamic Jihad suicide bomber killed one person age 85, injured others, at Afula central bus station
6683/7/2002
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
A PFLP suicide bomber exploded in a lobby of a hotel in the commericial center on the outskirts of Ariel in Samaria, injuring 15
6693/17/2002
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
Islamic Jihad suicide bomber injured 25 near an Egged bus no. 22 at the French Hill junction in northern Jerusalem
6703/24/2002
[govinfo.gov, accessed 2024]
Palestinian terrorist(s) shot and killed a 23-year-old American near Ofra in the West Bank
6713/27/2002
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
The Passover Massacre
“A terrorist attack kills thirty people at a Passover celebration at a hotel in the Israeli city of Netanya. As a result, the Israeli military reoccupies portions of the West Bank, including the city of Ramallah, where the Palestinian Authority is located and where Arafat has his West Bank headquarters.”
6723/28/2002
[.jewishvirtuallibrary.org, accessed 2024]
3/28/2002 / 5/10/2002: Operation Defensive Shield – Initiated by Israel against terrorists in the West Bank in response to a series of terrorist attacks including a Passover massacre. In addition to the Passover Massacre, this led to the death of approximately 250 Palestinians.
6733/29/2002
[pbs.org, adl.org, accessed 2024]
Israel attacks Arafat’s Ramallah compound, “IDF begins Operation Defensive Shield to uproot terrorist infrastructure in West Bank”
6743/31/2002
[pbs.org, accessed 2024]
Ariel Sharon says Israel at war with Yasser Arafat
6755/20/2002
[hrw.org, accessed 2024]
A suicide bomber killed himself when stopped for questioning as he tried to board a bus at Taanakhim junction headed for Afula
6765/24/2002
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
A Palestinian car bomber was killed by a security guard to stop an attack on Studio 49 Disco in Tel Aviv, in which 5 were injured
6776/2002

[en.wikipedia.org, accessed 2024]

“As a result of the significant increase of suicide bombing attacks within Israeli population centers during the first years of the Second Intifada, Israel began the construction of the West Bank Fence along the Green Line border arguing that the barrier is necessary to protect Israeli civilians from Palestinian militants. The significantly reduced number of incidents of suicide bombings from 2002 to 2005 has been partly attributed to the barrier. The barrier’s construction, which has been highly controversial, became a major issue of contention between the two sides.”
6786/23/2002
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli West Bank Barrier-Building Begins
“Israel begins building a security barrier in the West Bank to protect Israeli cities and towns from terrorist attacks. The barrier, which is a wall in some stretches and a fence in others, is controversial because in places it cuts deep into West Bank territory to protect settlements. The Palestinians are cut off from Jerusalem, some Palestinian villages are sliced in half, and some Palestinians are unable to get to work or school as a result of the security barrier’s path. Israel’s Supreme Court forces changes in the barrier’s route, but the barrier continues to impede Palestinian movement and commerce in certain areas.”
6797/17/2002
[hrw.org, accessed 2024]
An al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigade dual suicide bombing killed five (three were foreign), injured 25, near Tel Aviv’s old station
6807/30/2002
[hrw.org, accessed 2024]
An al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigade child suicide attack injured five at a falafel shop in central Jerusalem
6817/31/2002
[ejewishphilanthropy.com, accessed 2024]
A Hamas bombing in Jerusalem killed four Israelis and five Americans, injured 85, in the Hebrew University Sinatra cafeteria
6828/5/2002
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
A Palestinian terrorist exploded a bomb in a car at the Umm al-Fahm junction in northern Israel, wounding the driver
6839/18/2002
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
An Islamic Jihad suicide bomber killed an Israeli police sargeant, age 21, wounded three, at a bus stop at the Umm al Fahm junction when approached for questioning
68410/10/2002
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
Hamas suicide bomber killed a 71-year-old Israeli, injured about 30, while trying to board Dan bus No. 87 across from Bar-Ilan University on the Geha highway (Route 4)
68510/27/2002
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
A Hamas suicide bomber killed two IDF officers and a non-commissioned officer, injured 20, at the Sonol gas station at the entrance to Ariel in Samaria
68611/4/2002
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
An Islamic Jihad suicide bomber killed two Argentinian immigrants, one a teenager, and wounded about 70, at a shopping mall in Kfar Sava
6872003
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Roadmap for Peace is published by the Quartet and is endorsed by the Security Council in resolution 1515.”
6883/30/2003
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
An Islamic Jihad suicide bomber wounded over 40 on the pedestrian mall at the entrance to the London Cafe in the center of Netanya
6894/24/2003
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
A suicide bomber, claimed by groups related to the Fatah al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades and the PFLP, killed a 23-year-old security guard, wounded 13, outside the train station in Kfar Sava
6905/17/2003
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
Hamas suicide bomber killed an Israeli man and his wife, ages 31 and 37, in Hebron
6914/30/2003
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Road Map for Peace
“The Quartet, an informal group created to pursue Middle East peace comprising the United States, Russia, the United Nations, and the European Union, puts forth a Road Map for Peace based on the outline President George W. Bush offered in his 2002 speech. The road map lays out a plan for peace based on Palestinian reforms and a cessation of terrorism in return for an end to Israeli settlements and a new Palestinian state.”
6925/19/2003
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
Hamas suicide bomber on a bike was killed while detonating explosives next to a military jeep near Kfar Darom in the southern Gaza Strip, injuring three IDF soldiers
6936/19/2003
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
An Islamic Jihad suicide bomber killed an Israeli man, age 58, in his grocery on Sde Trumot, south of Beit Shean
6947/7/2003
[embassies.gov.il, accessed 2024]
An Islamic Jihad suicide bomber killed a grandmother, wounded her three grandchildren, in her Moshav Kfar Yavetz home
6958/12/2003
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Palestinian teen suicide bomber killed an Israeli man age 18, and wounded three with one dying later on 8/28, at a bus stop outside Ariel
6962004
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“The International Court of Justice (ICJ) issues Advisory Opinion on the legality of construction of a wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.”
6972004
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 20244]
Yasser Arafat Dies
6981/29/2004
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“Israel swaps prisoners with the terrorist group Hezbollah; releases 435 Arab prisoners in return for the remains of murdered soldiers and a kidnapped Israeli businessman”
6995/18/2004
[mezan.org, accessed 2024]
5/18/2004 – 5/24/2004: Operation Rainbow – Initiated by Israelis against Rafah city in Gaza allegedly looking for tunnels leading to the death of 44 Palestinians
7006/29/2004
[un.org, accessed 2024]
6/29/2004 – 8/5/2004: Raid on Beit Hanoun; Operation Forward Shield
7018/25/2004
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Windsurfer Gal Fridman wins Israel’s first Olympic gold medal at the Athens games”
7028/31/2004
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“Two simultaneous suicide bombings in Beersheba kill 16”
7039/22/2004
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An Al Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigade female suicide bomber killed two Israeli police trying to stop the attack in a Jerusalem bus shelter, and wounded others
7049/28/2004 (circa)
[United Nations PDF, accessed 2024]
Israelis launch Operation Days of Penitence to stop Palestinian rocket attacks and 9/23 – 9/24 leading to approximately 65 Palestinian deaths
7059/30/2004
[un.org, accessed 2024]
9/30/2004 – 10/16/2004: Operation Days of Penitence
70611/11/2004
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“Yasir Arafat dies in a Paris hospital”
70712/23/2024
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“The first phase of PA municipal elections are held; Hamas secures nearly half the seats”
7081/13/2005
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Hamas Karni crossing attack killed 6 Israeli civilians
7092/26/2005
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“The Knesset gives final approval to the Disengagement Plan, rejects calls for a national referendum”
7107/12/2005
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“Suicide bombing of Netanya mall kills 5”
7118/15/2005
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli Disengagement With Gaza
“Israel begins a unilateral withdrawal of settlers and military forces from the Gaza Strip. The Israeli military remains in control of Gaza’s borders (except the Gaza-Egypt border, which is controlled by Egypt), airspace, and coastline. After Israel’s withdrawal, Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, and other smaller militant groups fire rockets from Gaza into southern Israel.” [world101.cfr.org, accessed 4/9/2024]

“Israel Conducts Its ‘Disengagement'” From Gaza [remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 4/9/2024]
7128/17/2005
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“August 17-22, 2005
Evacuation of settlers from the Gaza Strip”
7138/23/2005

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“Israel’s unilateral disengagement plan: The evacuation of 25 Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip and West Bank is completed.”
7149/12/2005
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“Israeli military completes withdrawal from the Gaza”
7152006
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“In January, Hamas wins Palestinian Legislative Elections; forms Palestinian Authority government. The Quartet responds with Quartet Principles.”
7162006
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“War Breaks Out Between Israel And Hezbollah In Lebanon”
7171/4/2006
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon incapacitated by massive stroke; Deputy Prime Minister Ehud Olmert appointed Acting Prime Minister”
7181/26/2006
[theguardian.com, adl.org, accessed 2024]
Hamas, an acronym for Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiya (“Islamic Resistance Movement”), founded by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, a Palestinian cleric, elected as ruling government of the Palestinian people. “Palestinian parliamentary elections; Hamas wins 74 seats in the132-seat legislature,” adl.org.
7191/29/2006
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Hamas Expands Power in Gaza
“Hamas defeats Fatah, a Palestinian political faction founded in 1950s which was a long-dominant faction within the PLO, in Palestinian elections. The United States and other countries suspend their aid to the Palestinian Authority because they consider Hamas to be a terrorist organization. Fatah and Hamas make a deal to govern the West Bank and Gaza Strip together. The deal quickly fails, and Hamas takes over the Gaza Strip in 2007.”
7206/25/2006
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Gilad Shalit Taken Hostage
“Hamas operatives kidnap an Israeli soldier named Gilad Shalit on Israeli soil near the Gaza Strip. The Israeli military tries and fails to free him. He is held captive in Gaza until Israel—with the help of Egypt and the United States—negotiates his release in 2012.”
7216/28/2006
[idf.il, accessed 2024]
6/28/2006 – 11/26/2006: Operation Summer Rains – Initiated by Israel after Hamas killed two soldiers.
7227/12/2006
[hrw.org, accessed 2024]
7/12/2006 – 8/14/2006: Second Lebanon War
7237/12/2006

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“2006 July 12–August 14 – The Second Lebanon War took place, which began as a military operation in response to the abduction of two Israeli reserve soldiers by the Hezbollah, and gradually grew to a wider conflict. 1,191 Lebanese were killed, 4,409 were injured.”
7248/11/2006
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“The U.N. Security Council unanimously adopts Resolution 1701 for ceasefire in the Lebanon War”
72511/1/2006
[idf.il, accessed 2024]
11/1/2006 – 11/7/2006: Operation Autumn Clouds
7262007
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“Israel imposes a blockade on the Gaza Strip after an armed takeover of Gaza by Hamas.
In November, the Annapolis Conference ends with parties issuing a joint statement committing to immediately implement their respective obligations under the Roadmap and working towards a peace treaty by the end of 2008.”
7272007
[ecf.org.il, accessed 2024]
Hamas Government Formed
“A short confrontation between Fatah and Hamas over control of the Gaza Strip, concluding with a complete victory for the latter, that took place in June 2007. It followed a period of growing tensions between the two organizations in the wake of Hamas’ victory in the 2006 Palestinian legislative elections. After the fighting ended, Fatah leader and PNA President Mahmoud Abbas dismissed Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh and his Hamas-dominated government, but the latter refused to relinquish control. As a result, two rival Palestinian governments were formed: a Hamas government in the Gaza Strip, led by Haniyeh, and a Fatah government in the Israeli-controlled West Bank, led by Abbas-appointed Salam Fayyad. Since 2007, several unsuccessful attempts have been made to form a Fatah-Hamas unity government.”
7286/15/2007
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“Hamas takeover of Gaza”
72911/27/2007
[un.org, accessed 2024]
Annapolis Conference – Israeli-Palestinian joint understanding (“Annapolis understanding”) – White House press release/Non-UN document
“PRESIDENT BUSH: The representatives of the government of the state of Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization, represented respective by Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, and President Mahmoud Abbas in his capacity as Chairman of the PLO Executive Committee and President of the Palestinian Authority, have convened in Annapolis, Maryland, under the auspices of President George W. Bush of the United States of America, and with the support of the participants of this international conference, having concluded the following joint understanding. …”
7302008
[un.org, accessed 6/5/2024]
“Israel broadens its sanctions and completely seals off the Gaza Strip.
Later in the year, Israel launches ‘Operation Cast Lead’, a massive 22-day military assault on the Gaza Strip.”
7312008
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Peace Activists On Two Boats Drop Anchor In Gaza, Breaking The Israeli Blockade”
7322/27/2008
[jpost.com, accessed 2024]
2/27/2008 – 3/3/2008: Operation Warm Winter
7337/16/2008
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Hezbollah releases the bodies of captive Israeli soldiers Eldad Regev and Ehud Goldwasser, whose kidnapping sparked the Second Lebanon War”
73412/27/2008
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Israel Attacks the Gaza Strip
“Israel attacks the Gaza Strip following nearly eight hundred rocket attacks from Gaza on Israeli towns in the months of November and December. The war lasts less than a month but kills hundreds of civilians, in addition to hundreds of combatants, and sparks international criticism.” [world101.cfr.org, accessed 4/9/2024]
73512/27/2008
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“This year marks the fifth anniversary of Operation Cast Lead, Israel’s 22-day offensive (December 27-January 18) on the Gaza Strip. Sitting in Gaza today it is hard to believe that five years have passed.
The horrors of that offensive remain indelibly etched in the minds of all Gazans. For 22 days we were closed in and relentlessly attacked, while the world watched as war crimes were broadcast live on television. At the end of the offensive over 1,400 Palestinians were dead; 82 percent of them – the overwhelming majority – were innocent civilians.”
7362009
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“Security Council passes resolution 1860 calling for a ceasefire in Gaza. HRC creates the UN Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza conflict to investigate violations of international humanitarian and human rights law. Their findings are issued in the ‘Goldstone Report’.”
7371/18/2009
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“Israel signs a unilateral ceasefire. Twelve hours later Hamas agrees to a week-long ceasefire”
73811/25/2009
[haaretz.com, accessed 2024]
Israeli Freeze on Settlements
“Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced on Wednesday evening that Israel would impose a 10-month freeze on construction in West Bank settlements …”
7395/31/2010
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Israel intercepts a flotilla of six ships en route to Gaza”
7407/2010
[The Palestine Nakba (book), accessed 2024]
“… the daily Haaretz reported that Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu had extended the period for which material contained in the government and state archives would remain classified by another twenty years. … Many of these documents relate to the first … decades of the State of Israel. … Freundlich, of the Israel State Archives authorities, told the daily Haaretz that some of the material was selected to remain classified because … ‘it has implications over [Israel’s] adherence to international law’. Israeli historian Tom Segev pointed out … that official Israeli documents on the war crimes carried out by Jewish forces in 1948 … are still being kept secret by the Israeli state; this refusal to declassify the documents is backed by the Israeli Supreme Court.”
7415/15/2011
[wilsoncenter.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli soldiers fired on and killed 12 of the thousands of Palestinians protestors when some started throwing rocks and tried to cross over from Gaza, Lebanon, Syria and the West Bank
7425/19/2011
[wilsoncenter.org, accessed 2024]
President Obama endorsed a two-state solution based on 1967 borders
74310/18/2011
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“Kidnapped IDF Corporal Gilad Shalit is released in a prisoner exchange deal with Hamas”
7442012
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“In November, Israel launches ‘Pillar of Defense’ an 8-day military operation against the Gaza Strip.
Later that month, the General Assembly adopts resolution 67/19 granting Palestine the status of non-member observer State in the UN.”
7452012
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel Attacks Gaza Once More, In What It Calls ‘Operation Pillar Of Defense'”
7463/30/2012
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Israeli troops killed a Palestinian protestor in Gaza during annual rallies protesting Israel land policies
7474/27/2012
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President Obama unfroze $192 million Palestinian Authority aid package
7489/26/2012
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Bureij refugee camp protestors called for ousting Hamas after a three-year-old boy died in a fire during a power outage
74911/14/2012
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11/14/2012 – 11/21/2012: Operation Pillar of Defense – Initiated by Israel using airstrikes on Gaza Strip military and other targets leading to the deaths of 165 Palestinians and six Israelis, with more than a thousand injured
75011/14/2012
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“In response to intensifying rocket attacks from Gaza, on November 14, 2012 Israel launched an aerial military operation in Gaza, code named Operation Pillar of Defense, targeting Hamas and Islamic Jihad terrorist leadership and rocket launching and storage sites. A ceasefire, facilitated by Egypt and the United States, was reached on November 21.
On the first day of the operation, an Israeli airstrike killed Hamas military chief Ahmed Jabari, who Israeli security sources say was responsible for “all anti-Israel terror activity emanating from the [Gaza] Strip” over the past decade, including the abduction of IDF soldier Gilad Shalit in 2006.
Over the eight days of conflict, Hamas intensified its rocket attacks aimed at Israeli civilians, lobbing 1,506 rockets. While the brunt of the attacks were in Israel’s south, Iranian-made Fajr-5 rockets reached as far as Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, with 3.5 million Israelis – nearly half of Israel’s population – under the threat of attack. Six Israelis were killed by rocket fire, and 240 were injured.”
75111/29/2012
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“A/RES/67/19 …
This resolution conferred non-member observer state status in the UN on Palestine.”
7524/30/2013
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A recently released Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade man stabbed and killed an Israeli father at the Tapuach Junction on the West Bank
7536/22/2013
[nytimes.com, accessed 2024]
Hamas reportedly hanged two Palestinians in Gaza for collaborating with Israel
7547/28/2013
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Negotiations Face Continued Hurdles
“Secretary of State John Kerry seeks to restart final status negotiations. The process begins with the Israeli’s agreement to release 104 Palestinian prisoners and the Palestinians’ agreement not to use their new observer state status at the United Nations to advance the cause of statehood. Negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority collapsed in April 2014 over such issues as Israeli settlement growth, the status of a final round of prisoners, and Palestinian attempts to join several international organizations.”
7559/20/2013
[wilsoncenter.org, accessed 2024]
A Palestinian man killed an Israeli soldier, with whom he worked, in the West Bank reportedly to use as a negotiation for his brother’s release from jail
7569/22/2013
[wilsoncenter.org, accessed 2024]
A Palestinian shot and killed an Israeli soldier in Hebron
75710/17/2013
[timesofisrael.com, accessed 2024]
Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian man who rammed a tractor through the gate of an army base north of Jerusalem
75810/22/2013
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A Palestiniam man ran his car into a train station in Jerusalem killing an Israeli-American infant and a woman from Ecuador
75910/30/2013
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A Palestinian suspected of shooting Israeli activist Rabbi Yehuda Glick on 10/29 was shot and killed by Israeli police in the Abu Tor neighbourhood
76012/24/2013
[dci-palestine.org, accessed 2024]
A Palestinian sniper killed an Israeli civilian contractor working near the Gaza border fence
76112/24/2013
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Israeli tank fire killed a 2-year-old Palestinian girl at her home in the Al-Mughazi refugee camp in central Gaza
7622014
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“Israel launches a large scale military operation codenamed ‘Protective Edge’ on the Gaza Strip.”
7631/3/2014
[dci-palestine.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli soldiers shot and killed a 16-year-old Palestinian boy suspected of damaging the border fence and refusing to stop as ordered
7643/22/2014
[timesofisrael.com, accessed 2024]
Israelis killed a wanted Hamas operative in the Jenin refugee camp in northern West Bank resulting in protest clashes that resulted in the deaths of two Hamas members and a Fatah’s al-Aqsa Brigades member, and possibly another Palestinian
7654/14/2014
[timesofisrael.com, accessed 2024]
A Hamas operative shot and killed an Israel police superintendent near Hebron
7664/23/2014
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Tensions Between the PLO and Hamas
“The PLO and Hamas sign an agreement to form a unity government. Tensions between the factions remain, however, and no unity government is formed. Gaza and the West Bank remain disconnected and under the control of rival Palestinian leaderships.”
7676/12/2014
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Israeli teenagers Naftali Fraenkel, Gilad Shaer and Eyal Yifrah are abducted and killed by Palestinian terrorists. Their bodies are discovered on June 30th”
7687/2/2014
[adl.org, accessed 2024]
“Jewish extremists kidnap and kill 16 year-old Palestinian Mohammed Abu Khdeir”
7697/8/2014
[dci-palestine.org, accessed 2024]
Operation Protective Edge – Initiated by Israel to cease Hamas attacks from Gaza resulted in the deaths of 72 Israelis and more than 2,000 Palestinians, including 500 children, and more than 10,000 wounded, in which family homes were among the targets. This operation ceased on 8/26/2014.
7707/8/2014
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Operation Protective Edge
7/8/2014 – 8/26/2014: “After tit-for-tat attacks on Israeli and Palestinian civilians by extremists on both sides, Israel invades the Gaza Strip. The operation, code-named Protective Edge, lasts for fifty days, killing about two thousand Gazans, sixty-six Israeli soldiers, and five Israeli civilians. Unlike the conflicts from 2008 to 2009 and in 2012, Palestinian rocket fire targets major Israeli cities. The war ends after the United States, in consultation with Egypt, Israel, and other regional powers, brokers a cease-fire.” [world101.cfr.org, accessed 4/9/2024]

“Israel Launches The Biggest Assault On Gaza Since 1967, ‘Operation Protective Edge'” [remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 4/9/2024]

7717/20/2014
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Israeli missile attacks killed seven members of one family and four of another, including a total of seven children ages 2 to 13, in the Remal residential neighbourhood in central Gaza City
7727/20/2014
[amnestyusa.org, accessed 2024]
An Israeli aircraft attack killed 26 people, including 25 members from one family, including 19 children ages four months to 14 and a pregnant woman, near the al-Zanneh neighbourhood of Bani Suheila, east of Khan Yunis
7737/29/2014
[amnestyusa.org, accessed 2024]
An Israeli large aerial bomb killed 36 members of five families, including 18 children ages 1 to 17, in the city of Khan Yunis
7747/31/2014
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An Israeli air attack killed 14 people, including six children ages 1 to 16, in al-Nuseirat refugee camp, injuring others, in the central area of the Gaza Strip
7758/1/2014
[amnestyusa.org, accessed 2024]
An Israeli aircraft bombing killed five people from one family, including three children ages 6 to 14, in the residential neighbourhood of al-Sabra in Gaza City
7768/4/2014
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An Israeli aircraft bombing killed five people from one family, including three children ages 3 months to 7, and another person, injuring others, al-Shati’ refugee camp in Gaza City
7778/20/2014
[amnestyusa.org, accessed 2024]
An Israeli aircraft attack killed eight members of a family, including three children ages 6 to 12 and a pregnant woman, injuring others, in the al-Hikr neighbourhood in southern Deir al-Balah
7788/23/2014
[amnestyusa.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli aircraft attack killed five members of a family, including children ages 1 and 3, injuring others, in al-Zuwayda, a village in the central Gaza Strip
77910/16/2014
[timesofisrael.com, accessed 2024]
Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 13, in the West Bank town of Beit Liqi
78010/22/2014
[timesofisrael.com, accessed 2024]
A Hamas car attack on a disembarking train, which resulted in police killing the suspect, also led to the death of a dual American-Israeli infant, age 3 months, when she was thrown from her stroller, and a woman from Ecuador who died several days later, and others injured, in Jerusalem
78110/24/2014
[nytimes.com, accessed 2024]
Israeli troops shot and killed a dual American-Palestinian teen on a main road in the occupied West Bank
78210/30/2014
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Islamic Jihad member Moataz Hejazi who was suspected of shooting an Israeli/U.S. activist outside Menachem Begin Heritage Center on 10/29 was killed in a gunfight with police
78311/18/2014
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Two Palestinians were killed after reportedly killing five Israelis with a gun and axes in the Kehillat Bnei Torah Synagogue
78412/29/2014
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian teen, age 17, in the West Bank
7852015
[remix.aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel Holds Early Elections For The 20th Kenesset. The Likud Party, Led By Benjamin Netanyahu, Wins Again.”
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Israeli border police shot and killed a Palestinian girl, age 17, at the entrance of the Ibrahimi mosque in Hebron
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian man, age 19, near the Beit Hadassah settlement
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian man, age 23, near the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron
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Israelis shot and killed a Palestinian man, age 23, and wounded a bystander, outside the light rail station on Bar-Lev Street in Jerusalem
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Israeli tear gas used against clashes near Bethlehem led to the asphyxiation death of an 8-month-old Palestinian infant in his home.
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 17, near the al-Jalama military roadblock northeast of the northern West Bank city of Jenin
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An Isreali guard shot and killed a Palestinian man, age 18, allegedly for an attempted knife attack at Jalameh (Gilboa) crossing
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The Israeli army shot and killed a Palestinian man allegedly attempting a knife attack at a border crossing in the northern West Bank
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 16, near the al-Jalama military roadblock northeast of the northern West Bank city of Jenin
83611/6/2015
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Israeli army shot and killed two Palestinians, one during a protest, and an elderly woman allegedly using a car as a weapon
83711/10/2015
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Israeli forces killed a Palestinian girl, age 16, allegedly for stabbing a soldier, at a military checkpoint located at Wadi al-Nar east of the West Bank town of Abu Dis
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Palestinians killed five in two different attacks, two Israelis in Tel Aviv and two others and an American, age 18, in West Bank
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Palestinian girls accused of stabbing an Israeli man at the Mahane Yehuda Market in Jerusalem led to the shooting death of one of the accused, a 14-year-old girl, and the conviction of her 16-year-old cousin
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A Palestinian 16-year-old boy suspected of killing an Israeli soldier at a gas station on Route 443 in West Bank, injuring others, was shot and killed by Israeli soldiers
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A Palestinian 16-year-old boy suspected of attacking an Israeli soldier at Huwara military checkpoint in Nablus, West Bank, was shot and killed by Israeli forces
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Israeli security forces shot and killed a 19-year-old Palestinian man suspected of stabbing an Israeli man near Al-Fawwar refugee camp, in South Hebron Hills in the West Bank
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 17, in Ein al-Louza neighborhood in Silwan town south of the Al-Aqsa Mosque in occupied Jerusalem
84412/1/2015
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An Israeli soldier shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 16, allegedly attempting to stab an Israeli near the Gush Etzion settlement block
84512/16/2015
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed two Palestinian men, ages 21 and 29, one for allegedly attempting a car attack in the Qalandiya refugee camp
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An Israeli soldier shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 15, allegedly for an attempted stabbing, near the village of
Huwwara in the Nablus region
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian man, age 21, allegedly for attempting to run them over during a riot in the
village of Silwad east of Ramallah
8482016
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“UN Security Council adopts resolution 2334, stating that Israel’s settlement activity constitutes a ‘flagrant violation’ of international law and has ‘no legal validity’.”
8491/1/2016
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An Israeli Arab shot and killed two Israelis and wounded others in a shopping and eating area on Dizengoff Street in Tel Aviv
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian man, age 18, after allegedly stabbing an Israeli soldier at the Gush Etzion junction
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Israeli forces shot and killed three Palestinian cousins, ages 18 and 19, for alleged stabbing attempts on them at the Gush Etzion junction in the southern occupied West Bank
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 16, for an alleged stabbing attempt at the Beit Einun junction northeast of Hebron
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Israeli forces shot and killed two Palestinian men, ages 26 and 38, for an alleged stabbing attack at a checkpoint in the West Bank
8541/12/2016
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian man, age 21, in the West Bank
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 17, at the Beit Einoun junction near Hebron
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Israeli gunboat fire led to the death of a Palestinian man, age 23, and others injured, in Beit Lehya in northern Gaza close to the Israeli border
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian man, age 20, after an alleged stabbing attack in the occupied West Bank city of Hebron
8581/14/2016
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Israeli soldiers killed a Palestinian man, age 36, allegedly for stabbing a soldier, who was injured, at a military roadblock north of the northern West Bank city of Nablus
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed two Palestinians, a man age 23 and a boy age 17, for allegedly stabbing two Israeli women, leading to the death of one in Beit Horon west of Ramallah
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An Israeli soldier shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 15, during clashes over the Israeli incursion in the al-‘Arroub refugee camp
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed two Palestinian boys, age 15, near the Annexation Wall section west of Jenin
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 17, trying to cross a military roadblock near al-Khass and an-No’man villages east of Bethlehem
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A Palestinian stabbing attack by teens, age 14, led to one injured, the death of an off-duty dual American-Israeli soldier, age 21, and one of the teens shot by an armed civilian, at a supermarket in the Sha’ar Binyamin Industrial Zone located southeast of Ramallah in the West Bank.
8642/21/2016
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 17, allegedly attempting a stabbing attack near the Beita village junction south of the northern West Bank city of Nablus
8652/26/2016
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian-American boy, age 17, near the Beit El Israeli colony and security center north of Ramallah
8663/2/2016
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed two Palestinian boys, age 17, allegedly attempting to stab a soldier in the Eli settlement south of the northern West Bank city of Nablus
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Israeli military bombing led to the deaths of two Palestinian children, a boy age 10 and sister age 6, in Beit Lahiya in the Gaza Strip
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An Isreali soldier shot and killed a wounded Palestinian man suspected of a stabbing attack on a soldier in Tel Rumeida in the West Bank city of Hebron
8694/28/2016
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A couple of civilian Israeli guards shot and killed a Palestinian woman, age 23, and her brother, age 16, suspected of carrying knives at the Qalandiya crossing in the West Bank
8706/8/2016
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A Palestinian shooting by gunmen led to the deaths of four Israelis, injured others, around Sarona Market’s Max Brenner restaurant in Tel Aviv
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 15, injured others, in a car on their way home from a Tira village swimming pool in the West Bank
8726/30/2016
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 17, who allegedly stabbed an Israeli girl in her bed, leading to her death the next day, in the Kiryat Arba’ settlement in Hebron
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An Israeli border police officer shot and killed a Palestinian woman, age 27, at a checkpoint in the Ibrahimi Mosque compound at the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron
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A Palestinian shooting attack led to the death of a rabbi, injuries to his family, in the South Hebron Hills
8759/16/2016
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 15, suspected of a soldier stabbing at the Gilbert military checkpoint near the closed military zone of Tel Rumeida in Hebron’s Old City
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Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 17, allegedly commiting a contested car ramming attack near Kiryat Arba settlement in Hebron
8779/19/2016
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 16, allegedly carrying a knife near the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 15, allegedly carrying a knife at a checkpoint near Bani Na’im, in the southern West Bank governorate of Hebron
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 15, allegedly throwing stones at soldiers in Beit Omar near Hebron in the West Bank
88011/25/2016
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An Israeli security guard shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 16, allegedly attempting a stabbing attack near the Shu‘fat checkpoint in Jerusalem
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Israeli shooting during a clash on 10/15/2016 at al-Jalazun refugee camp in Ramallah led to the death of a Palestinian boy from injuries on 12/23/2016
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“The Security Council reaffirmed this afternoon that Israel’s establishment of settlements in Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem, had no legal validity, constituting a flagrant violation under international law and a major obstacle to the vision of two States living side-by-side in peace and security, within internationally recognized borders.
Adopting resolution 2334 (2016) by 14 votes, with the United States abstaining, the Council reiterated its demand that Israel immediately and completely cease all settlement activities in the occupied Palestinian territory, including East Jerusalem. It underlined that it would not recognize any changes to the 4 June 1967 lines, including with regard to Jerusalem, other than those agreed by the two sides through negotiations.”
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President Donald Trump announced that the United States would begin recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and officially open an Embassy there.
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The U.S. Formally Recognizes Jerusalem as the Capital of Israel
“Changing long-standing U.S. policy, U.S. President Donald Trump formally recognizes Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. He also pledges to move the U.S. embassy from Tel Aviv to that city, though the move is not set to occur immediately. Numerous foreign leaders, including those of Egypt, France, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and the United Kingdom, along with UN Secretary-General António Guterres, criticize the policy change. It also sparks protests and violence throughout East Jerusalem, Gaza, and the West Bank, as well as in Egypt, Iran, Iraq, and Jordan. In January 2018, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas declines to meet with U.S. Vice President Mike Pence during Pence’s trip to the region.”
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“The United States moves its embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. The same day, the Israeli army kills more than 50 Palestinians and injures more than 2,000 at the border between Gaza and Israel.”
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“The period between 11 and 13 November witnessed one of the most serious rounds of hostilities in Gaza and southern Israel since the 2014 escalation. It resulted in the killing of 15 Palestinians, including at least three civilians (one of them by Palestinian rocket fire), and one Israeli soldier; dozens of homes in Gaza and southern Israel were destroyed or damaged, displacing at least 33 Palestinian and 15 Israeli families. An informal ceasefire was reached on 13 November, with the support of Egypt and the UN, which is still holding. Since then, there has also been a significant decline in violence and related casualties during the ongoing ‘Great March of Return’ demonstrations near the perimeter fence around Gaza, including in the launching of incendiary devices towards Israel.”
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The U.S. Recognizes Israeli Sovereignty Over the Golan Heights
“The Trump administration recognizes Israeli sovereignty over the Golan Heights, which Israel had formally annexed from Syria in 1981. The United States is the first country other than Israel to recognize Israel’s sovereignty over the territory.”
8881/28/2020
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Trump Administration Launches Proposed Peace Plan
“Trump unveils his administration’s proposed Israeli-Palestinian peace plan, crafted by U.S. and Israeli diplomats without Palestinian input. The plan calls for a two-state solution with significant economic aid to the Palestinians. Many analysts criticize the plan as being one sided, stipulating impossible requirements for Palestinian statehood and paving the way for Israeli annexation of the West Bank. Palestinian authorities reject the plan immediately. Following the plan’s announcement, Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announces Israel’s plan to annex portions of the West Bank as outlined in Trump’s proposal.”
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Abraham Accords Peace Agreement
“Relations between Some Arab Countries and Israel Normalize – Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates agree to normalize diplomatic relations with Israel, becoming the first Arab countries to do so in over twenty-five years. In return, Israel announces the suspension of its plans to annex territory in the West Bank. Morocco and Sudan subsequently also sign on to the agreement and normalize relations with Israel.”
8902021
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2021 Israel-Hamas Crisis
“Evictions of Palestinians in East Jerusalem and clashes at al-Aqsa Mosque spark conflict between Israel and Hamas. Over two hundred people in Gaza and at least ten in Israel die. The Joe Biden administration helps mediate a truce and restores some U.S. aid and diplomatic contact with the Palestinians.”
8915/10/2021
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Operation Guardian of the Walls – Initiated by the Israelis in retaliation to rocket attacks from Gaza from 5/10 to 5/21/2021, leading to the deaths of 7 Israelis, and 233 Palestinians, including 66 children from age 8-months to 17
8925/27/2021
[ohchr.org, accessed 2024]
“On 27 May 2021, the Human Rights Council held a special session on ‘the Grave Human Rights Situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem” and adopted the resolution “Ensuring respect for international human rights law and international humanitarian law in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and in Israel’.”
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The political wing of Hamas announced it would stop its suicide bombings and mortar attacks if Israel ceased political assassinations and killing civilians
8942022
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“General Assembly requests ICJ Advisory Opinion on the legal implications of the prolonged Israeli occupation.”
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“General Assembly adopts resolution A/RES/77/23 of 30 November 2022 requesting the Committee to Commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Nakba for the first time in the history of the UN.”
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Deadly Year in Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
“Israel launches a counterterrorism operation in the West Bank in response to attacks by Palestinians against Jewish Israelis. The operation and resulting resurgence contribute to the deadliest year for both sides since 2005, an uptick in violence that only turned out to rise in 2023.”
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“At least 44 people, including 15 children, are killed in three days of violence that begin when Israeli air strikes hit a senior Islamic Jihad commander.”
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Operation Breaking Dawn – Initiated by Israel against Iran-backed Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) in the Gaza Strip from 8/5 to 8/7/2022, leading to the death of more than 33 Palestinians, including 13 children ages 4 to 17
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Palestinian gunmen shooting from a car led to the deaths of British-Israeli sisters, ages 20 and 15, near the Hamra Junction in the north of the Jordan Valley heading toward Tiberias
9004/10/2023
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 15, in the Aqabet Jaber refugee camp in Jericho
9014/28/2023
[timesofisrael.com]
Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 16, during clashes near the West Bank town of Tuqu’
9025/3/2023
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“Seventy-five years after the mass displacement of Palestinians began, approximately 5.9 million registered Palestinian refugees live across the Middle East. Palestinians comprise the largest stateless community worldwide. While they constitute the world’s longest protracted refugee situation, their plight has been eclipsed by more recent displacement crises and dismissed as unsolvable. Among refugees, this population is unique in several ways. For one, it includes people originally displaced from Palestine between 1946 and 1948, amid the creation of the state of Israel, as well as their children and other descendants; while these younger generations would not typically be considered refugees in other displacement situations, they are counted as such by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA).”
9035/9/2023
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Operation Shield and Arrow May 9-13, 2023
“On May 9, Israel initiated a direct attack on the senior commanders of Palestinian Islamic Jihad in Gaza while ignoring Hamas, its third such attack since November 2019. The operation was Israel’s response to an escalation of rocket and mortar fire by Palestinian Islamic Jihad, an escalation that was itself a response to the death of a senior member of the group’s West Bank branch while on hunger strike in an Israeli prison. Hamas, the sovereign ruler of Gaza, preferred, as in the two previous bouts between Israel and Palestinian Islamic Jihad, to sit the fight out, choosing instead to maintain the ceasefire to which it agreed after Operation Guardian of the Walls in May 2021.”
9045/15/2023
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“The United Nations for the first time on Monday officially commemorated the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians in the war surrounding the creation of Israel 75 years ago, drawing a sharp response from the Israeli ambassador to the world body. The event — marking the Nakba, or ‘catastrophe,’ by Palestinians — was attended by the Palestinian president, Mahmoud Abbas; many member states from Asia, Africa, Central and South America and the Middle East; and representatives of the African Union and the Arab League, who delivered speeches. The United States and Britain did not attend.”
9056/1/2023
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Israeli troop gunfire led to the death of a Palestinian boy, age 4, on 6/5, and injured his father, in the Israeli settlement of Neveh Tzuf north of Jerusalem in the West Bank
9066/19/2023
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An Israeli incursion led to the deaths of seven Palestinians, including one age 14, and another age 15 who died 6/21, and dozens injured, in Jenin
9076/20/2023
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Two Hamas members shot and killed four Israelis, including a boy age 17, at a gas station near the West Bank settlement Eli, and later that day one of the alleged shooters was killed by an Israeli civilian and the other by special forces
9087/21/2023
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 17, during unrest in the village of Umm Safa near Ramallah
9097/21/2023
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian, age 18, in a car Nablus in the occupied West Bank
9107/26/2023
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Israeli military fire killed a Palestinian boy, age 14, in the occupied West Bank
9118/10/2023
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An Israeli undercover unit killed a Palestinian man, age 23, during a raid in Nablus city
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Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian man, age 25,
during a raid in the Tulkarm Refugee Camp, injuring others
9138/15/2023
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Israeli forces shot and killed two Palestinians, including one age 16, during a search-and-arrest operation in Aqabet Jaber Camp Refugee Camp (Jericho)
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An Israeli undercover unit killed a Palestinian during a raid of a residential building in Jenin city
9158/19/2023
[ochaopt.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli forces killed a Palestinian man, age 20, who died on 8/19 after being shot during an 8/16 Israeli forces operation in Balata Refugee Camp in Nablus
9168/22/2023
[ochaopt.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 17, during a search-and-arrest operation in Az Zababida, Jenin
9178/30/2023
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
Israeli forces killed a Palestinian boy, age 15, in occupied East Jerusalem
9189/5/2023
[dci-palestine.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 16, in the Jordan Valley
9199/9/2023
[dci.plo.ps, accessed 2024]
Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 16, during a protest at the entrance to the Al-Aroub refugee camp north of Hebron in the southern occupied West Bank
9209/19/2023
[dci-palestine.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian boy, age 15, during an incursion in Jenin
92110/7/2023
[world101.cfr.org, accessed 2024]
Hamas Launches Surprise Attack on Israel
“Israel faced domestic turmoil over government moves to overhaul the judiciary, all while 2022 marked a renewed level of violence between the Israelis and the Palestinians. The first nine months of 2023 witnessed a steady trend of clashes in the West Bank.
On October 7, 2023, Hamas launched an unprecedented surprise attack on Israel, leading to an explosion of violence. According to Israeli media, the conflict’s initial strikes led to at least 250 people killed and 1,500 injured in Israel, making it the deadliest attack in the country in decades. Some 250 people in Israel were also taken by Hamas as hostages.
Hamas’s military leader, Mohammed Deif, said the group undertook its assault because of Israel’s long-running blockade of Gaza, its occupation of Palestinian lands, and its alleged crimes against Muslims, including the desecration of al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Israel’s Prime Minister Netanyahu, in turn, announced that Israel was at war with Hamas. Israel proceeded to launch deadly rocket fire on Gaza and later began a ground assault.
As of November 8, more than 10,000 people had been killed in Palestine and more than 1,400 in Israel—240 Israelis remained in capture in Gaza. Some 1.4 million Palestinians within the first month of conflict have been displaced as humanitarian concerns have grown. On October 17, the United States vetoed a UNSC vote for a humanitarian pause in the conflict, citing Israel’s right to self-defense. The October 2023 war between Israel and Hamas marks the most significant escalation of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict in several decades.”
92210/7/2023
[ict.org.il, accessed 2024]
“Hamas, the Palestinian terrorist group based in the Gaza Strip, began a devastating and coordinated attack … The attack began at approximately 0630 (UTC+03) when Hamas launched a massive rocket barrage targeting civilian areas. … In response to these grave developments, the State of Israel officially declared war, the first time the state has done so since 1973. The military launched Operation Swords of Iron …”
92310/9/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel declares a ‘complete siege’ of Gaza. The enclave, home to more than 2 million Palestinians, has already been under a blockade for 16 years. Israeli Defense Minister Yoav Gallant says ‘no electricity, no food, no fuel’ will be allowed to enter.”
92410/11/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
Netanyahu forms emergency government
92510/12/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel gives the more than 1 million people who live in northern Gaza 24 hours to evacuate southward. Hundreds of thousands heed the warning. Others refuse to leave.”
92610/17/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“At least 100 people are killed when an explosion hits al-Ahli Hospital in Gaza City.”
92710/21/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“Egypt reopens the Rafah crossing, the only way in or out of Gaza that Israel does not control, enabling a trickle of aid to resume — but at a fraction of prewar levels.”
92810/27/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“The Israeli military expands its ground operations despite warnings from the Biden administration that a full-scale assault could cause heavy civilian casualties.”
92910/31/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“Israeli strikes on the Jabalya refugee camp in northern Gaza kill more than 110 people and wound hundreds more. Israel’s military says it killed a senior Hamas commander and other militants. The U.N. human rights office expresses ‘serious concerns that these are disproportionate attacks that could amount to war crimes.”
93011/6/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“More than 10,000 in Gaza are killed in the first month of war, according to Gaza’s Health Ministry. Most of the casualties are women and children, U.N. agencies say.”
93111/9/2023
[government.is, accessed 2024]
Iceland’s response in relation to the conflict between Israel and Hamas
“Parliamentary resolution 522/154, approved by Alþingi on 9 November 2023 epitomises Iceland’s position with regard to the conflict between Israel and the terrorist organisation Hamas. The resolution reads as follows:
‘Alþingi concludes that an immediate humanitarian ceasefire in the Gaza Strip should be established in order to guarantee the safety of civilians, both Palestinian and Israeli. Alþingi condemns all acts of violence directed against civilians in Palestine and Israel. Alþingi demands that international law be upheld for humanitarian reasons, for the safety of civilians and for the protection of civilian infrastructure.
Alþingi condemns the terrorist attack by Hamas on civilians in Israel on October 7, 2023. Alþingi also condemns all subsequent actions of the Israeli government in violation of international humanitarian law, including untold suffering, loss of life, civilian casualties and destruction of civilian infrastructure. It is critical that all violations of international law by the warring parties be fully investigated.
Alþingi calls for humane treatment and immediate release of hostages, access of humanitarian organisations, and the immediate provision of emergency aid and medical assistance for civilians.
Alþingi instructs the government to advocate additional funding for humanitarian assistance and an investigation of violations of international law in order to follow up on the priorities laid out in this resolution.'”
93211/15/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“The Israel Defense Forces raid al-Shifa Hospital, which houses hundreds of patients and thousands of displaced people. Intense fighting in the area means the hospital has been effectively sealed off that month. Patients including premature babies die when the hospital loses electricity, medics there say. U.S. and Israeli officials say Hamas has used the hospital as a command center. Doctors deny the accusation. Israel surrounds and raids other hospitals in the months that follow. In February, the U.N. human rights office accuses Israel of ‘a pattern of attacks’ against hospitals. The IDF accuses Hamas of ‘cynically using hospitals for terror.'”
93311/19/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“Iran-backed Houthi militants in Yemen hijack the Galaxy Leader and take crew members hostage in the first of many attacks on shipping in the Red Sea to protest Israel’s campaign.”
93411/24/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel and Hamas agree to pause fighting and exchange some of the hostages for prisoners, and allow more aid into Gaza. Hamas releases more than 100 Israeli hostages. Israel releases 240 Palestinians held as prisoners. Freed hostages begin sharing accounts of their time in captivity. Some say they witnessed the sexual assault of hostages. The pause ends after seven days; each side says the other breached the deal.”
93511/26/2023
[dci-palestine.org, accessed 2024]
Israeli forces shot and killed three Palestinian teen boys aged 17, 16 and 14, during an incursion in Jenin
93612/4/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“Israeli forces push south toward Khan Younis, where Israel had previously encouraged civilians to go for safety. Israel says Hamas leader Yehiya Sinwar, the alleged architect of the Oct. 7 attack, is hiding in tunnels below Khan Younis. Israel tells civilians to head farther south to Rafah, on the border with Egypt.”
93712/15/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“The IDF announces that its forces have mistakenly shot dead three Israeli hostages in Gaza City, outraging Israelis. The three men were shirtless and brandishing a makeshift white flag as they approached an IDF position, a senior military official says.”
93812/22/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“More than 20,000 people — or nearly 1 in 100 of Gaza’s population — have been killed since the war began, according to Gaza’s Health Ministry.”
93912/28/2023
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“The United Nations describes a ‘rapidly deteriorating human rights situation in the occupied West Bank, including East Jerusalem,’ since Oct. 7. By Dec. 31, more than 500 Palestinians have been killed in the West Bank. Attacks by extremist Israeli settlers on Palestinians in the West Bank increase. At least 11 Palestinian communities are completely abandoned in 2023. Later, the United Nations expresses ‘alarm over credible allegations of egregious human rights violations’ against girls and women in Gaza and the West Bank.”
9401/2/2024
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“Saleh Arouri, the second-in-command of Hamas’s political office, is killed in an explosion in the south of the Lebanese capital Beirut. A U.S. defense official says the IDF was responsible for the strike.”
9411/11/2024
[apnews.com, accessed 2024]
“During opening statements at the International Court of Justice, South African lawyers said the latest Gaza war is part of decades of Israeli oppression of Palestinians. The court “has the benefit of the past 13 weeks of evidence that shows incontrovertibly a pattern of conduct and related intention” that amounts to ‘a plausible claim of genocidal acts,’ South African lawyer Adila Hassim told the judges and audience in a packed room of the Peace Palace in The Hague.”
9421/21/2024
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“Two-dozen troops are killed in the bloodiest day for the Israeli military since the start of the war. Twenty-one are killed while trying to demolish two buildings, leading Israel to confirm it is building a buffer zone in Gaza to further separate the enclave from Israel.”
9431/26/2024
[washingtonpost.com, accessed 2024]
“The International Court of Justice orders Israel to do more to prevent harm to Palestinian civilians in Gaza.”
9441/26/2024
[unrwa.org, accessed 2024]
“‘The Israeli Authorities have provided UNRWA with information about the alleged involvement of several UNRWA employees in the horrific attacks on Israel on 7 October….'”
9452/22/2024
[lemonde.fr, accessed 2024]
“Netanyahu unveils his post-war plan for Gaza
The Israeli Prime Minister intends to maintain a military presence in the Gaza Strip. The Palestinian Authority rejected his plan as ‘perpetuating the occupation,’ while the US reiterated its rejection of a ‘reoccupation’ of Gaza.”
9463/7/2024
[eeas.europa.eu, accessed 2024]
Israel/Palestine: Statement by the High Representative on the so-called legalization of outposts in the occupied West Bank “The European Union condemns the planned so-called legalization of five Israeli settlement outposts and the announcement of thousands of new housing units in the occupied West Bank. The EU also firmly condemns the continued policies of dispossession implemented in the occupied West Bank by the current Israeli government. The ongoing efforts aiming at establishing facts on the ground and risking to lead to a de-facto annexation must stop.
Israel’s policy of building settlements in the occupied Palestinian territories constitutes a serious violation of international law, exacerbates tensions, and undermines efforts to achieve a two-state solution. We call on Israel to reverse these decisions. In line with its longstanding common position and UN Security Council Resolutions, the EU will not recognise changes to the 1967 borders unless agreed by the parties. …”
9473/21/2024
[csis.org, accessed 2024]
“Although the Israel-Hamas war in Gaza has captured the world’s attention, there is a serious risk of war between Israel and Hezbollah, according to a new assessment by CSIS. Since October 7, 2023, there have been over 4,400 rocket, missile, and other stand-off attacks by Israel and Hezbollah combined. Hezbollah has also repeatedly violated UN Security Council Resolution 1701 by deploying forces and firing anti-tank guided missiles and other stand-off weapons against Israel from the zone between the Blue Line and the Litani River, according to CSIS geolocation analysis.”
9484/1/2024
[nbcnews.com, accessed 2024]
“The U.S.-based nonprofit group, founded by celebrity chef José Andrés, suspended operations in Gaza for four weeks after the workers were killed on April 1, according to a statement. The organization identified the aid workers as Saifeddin Issam Ayad Abutaha, a 25-year-old Palestinian; Lalzawmi (Zomi) Frankcom, a 43-year-old Australian; Damian Soból, a 35-year-old from Poland; Jacob Flickinger, a 33-year-old dual citizen of the U.S. and Canada; and security team members John Chapman, 57, James (Jim) Henderson, 33, and James Kirby, 47, all from the United Kingdom.”
9494/5/2024
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“As of April 5, more than 100 journalists, mostly Palestinians, have been killed since the Israel-Gaza war began on October 7. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists and the International Federation of Journalists, 96 Palestinian, three Lebanese and four Israeli journalists have been killed.”
9504/16/2024
[PDF un.org, accessed 2024]
“On 16 April, the Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies published an article on the end of the 55th Session of the UN Human Rights Council, titled ‘Between Palestine and Ukraine: Double-standards and silence in the face of atrocities are eroding the UN rights system’.”
9514/18/2024
[PDF un.org, accessed 2024]
“On 18 April, the Security Council declined Palestine’s bid to become a full member of the United Nations. The proposal, submitted by Algeria, received 12 votes in favour, with the United States casting a veto, and Switzerland and the United Kingdom abstaining.”
9524/22/2024
[PDF un.org, accessed 2024]
“On 22 April, the Palestinian Return Centre called on the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court to immediately issue arrest warrants for the commission of war crimes within the Israeli government and military, to stop Israel’s imminent military operation in Rafah.”
9534/24/2024
[PDF un.org, accessed 2024]
“On 24 April, the Senior Humanitarian and Reconstruction Coordinator for Gaza, Ms. Sigrid Kaag, made remarks at the Security Council, in which she stated that a paradigm shift was needed to continue to meet the immense needs of the civilian population in a safe and secure manner. She also stressed that UNRWA was pivotal in providing life-saving humanitarian aid and essential social services, particularly in health and education, to Palestine refugees. She added that, as such, UNRWA was irreplaceable and indispensable as a humanitarian lifeline and must be allowed to deliver on its mandate.”
9544/24/2024
[PDF un.org, accessed 2024]
“On 24 April, following the discovery of mass graves containing hundreds of bodies at two of Gaza’s hospitals, Amnesty International published statements of its Senior Director of Research, Advocacy, Policy and Campaigns, Erika Guevara Rosas, in which she called for the immediate access for human rights investigators, including forensic experts, to the Gaza Strip to ensure that evidence is preserved.”
9554/25/2024
[PDF un.org, accessed 2024]
“On 25 April, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) issued the press release ‘Testimonies from the Occupied Palestinian Territory show new depths of Israel’s atrocities’. The document includes statements made by UN Special Rapporteur on the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Francesca Albanese, who declared that the situation in Gaza was worse than previously assessed, with serious and multi-layered long-term implications.”
9564/25/2024
[PDF un.org, accessed 2024]
“On 25 April, Association belgo-palestinienne published a memorandum (in French) detailing concrete actions to support the Palestinian peop”
9574/25/2024
[PDF un.org, accessed 2024]
“On 25 April, the Al Mezan Centre for Human Rights issued a press release on the lack of accountability for the killing of Palestinian journalists by Israeli security forces, marking the sixth anniversary of the killing of Ahmed Abu Hussein. Al Mezan claimed that the journalist was killed by Israeli security forces, and informed having forwarded documentation and investigative materials to the Israeli military authorities, along with numerous reminders regarding the case that was nonetheless closed without charges in 2020.”
9584/25/2024
[PDF un.org, accessed 2024]
“On 25 April, 7amleh published the report “Position Paper on YouTube’s Impact on Palestinian Digital Rights during the War on Gaza”. The paper addressed YouTube’s policies and discriminatory practices, its compliance with international law, adherence to human rights due diligence, and its impact on Palestinian digital rights following the attacks of 7 October 2023.”
9594/26/2024
[cnn.com, accessed 2024]
“Basem Naim, an Istanbul-based member of Hamas’ political bureau, told CNN on Thursday that the group would agree to disarm if an independent Palestinian state was established. ‘If an independent state with its capital in Jerusalem, while preserving the right of return for refugees, (is created) Al Qassam could be integrated into (a future) national army,’ he said, referring to the group’s armed wing. Hamas has traditionally rejected a two-state solution that would see a Palestinian state established alongside Israel and has instead advocated the creation of a Palestinian state in all of historic Palestine that today encompasses Israel, the occupied West Bank, occupied East Jerusalem and Gaza. Mustafa Barghouti, President of the Palestinian National Initiative, said he wasn’t aware of Hamas offering to lay down its arms before, but said it would be a significant move if true.”
9605/10/2024
[un.org, accessed 2024]
“During its resumed tenth emergency special session, the General Assembly adopted a resolution that — as of 10 September 2024 — upgrades Palestine’s rights at the United Nations as an observer State, urging the Security Council to favourably consider its full membership. The Assembly adopted the resolution titled ‘Admission of new Members to the United Nations’ (document A/ES-10/L.30/Rev.1) by a recorded vote of 143 in favour to 9 against (Argentina, Czech Republic, Hungary, Israel, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, United States), with 25 abstentions. By its terms, it determined that the State of Palestine is qualified for membership in the United Nations in accordance with Article 4 of the Charter of the United Nations and should, therefore, be admitted to membership in the Organization. …”
9615/20/2024
[icc-cpi.int, accessed 2024]
“On 20 May 2024, the ICC Prosecutor filed applications for warrants of arrest before Pre-Trial Chamber I:
-Concerning Yahya Sinwar, Mohammed Diab Ibrahim Al-Masri (Deif), and Ismail Haniyeh for war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed on the territory of Israel and the State of Palestine (in the Gaza strip) from at least 7 October 2023;
-Concerning Benjamin Netanyahu and Yoav Gallant for war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed on the territory of the State of Palestine (in the Gaza strip) from at least 8 October 2023.”
9625/27/2024
[apnews.com, accessed 2024]
“Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said Monday that a ‘tragic mishap’ was made in an Israeli strike in the southern Gaza city of Rafah that set fire to a camp housing displaced Palestinians and, according to local officials, killed at least 45 people.”
9635/28/2024
[gov.ie, accessed 2024]
“At a meeting of government today (May 28th) Ireland formally recognised the State of Palestine.
The Government recognises Palestine as a sovereign and independent state and agreed to establish full diplomatic relations between Dublin and Ramallah.
An Ambassador of Ireland to the State of Palestine will be appointed along with a full Embassy of Ireland in Ramallah. …”
9645/28/2024
[apnews.com, accessed 2024]
“Spain, Norway and Ireland formally recognized a Palestinian state on Tuesday in a coordinated effort by the three Western European nations to add international pressure on Israel to soften its response to last year’s Hamas-led attack. Israel condemned the diplomatic move, which will have no immediate impact on the war in Gaza. Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez said in a televised address from Madrid that ‘this is a historic decision that has a single goal, and that is to help Israelis and Palestinians achieve peace.’ …”
9655/30/2024
[timesofisrael.com, accessed 2024]
“The Slovenian government on Thursday approved a decision to recognize an independent Palestinian state, Slovenian Prime Minister Robert Golob said, following in the steps of Spain, Ireland and Norway.
‘Today the government has decided to recognize Palestine as an independent and sovereign state,’ he said at a news conference in Ljubljana.”
9665/31/2024
[regjeringen.no, accessed 2024]
“This week, Norway recognized the state of Palestine, underlining that Palestinians have a fundamental, independent right to self-determination, and that both Israelis and Palestinians have the right to live in peace and security in their respective states. …”
9676/2/2024
[indiatoday.in, accessed 2024]
Maldives bans entry of Israeli passport holders: ‘In Solidarity with Palestine’ – “After a cabinet meeting under the leadership of Maldivian President Mohamed Muizzu, the island nation announced that it would amend a law to ban the entry of Israeli nationals into the South Asian nation.”
9686/3/2024
[reviewjournal.com, accessed 2024]
4 more hostages are dead in Gaza, Israel declares – “All four of the men declared dead — Nadav Popplewell, Amiram Cooper, Yoram Metzger and Haim Peri — were kidnapped and taken into Gaza still alive, according to the Hostages Forum.”
9696/5/2024
[nytimes.com, accessed 2024]
“Israel organized and paid for an influence campaign last year targeting U.S. lawmakers and the American public with pro-Israel messaging, as it aimed to foster support for its actions in the war with Gaza, according to officials involved in the effort and documents related to the operation. The covert campaign was commissioned by Israel’s Ministry of Diaspora Affairs, a government body that connects Jews around the world with the State of Israel, four Israeli officials said. The ministry allocated about $2 million to the operation and hired Stoic, a political marketing firm in Tel Aviv, to carry it out, according to the officials and the documents. The campaign began in October and remains active on the platform X.”
9706/5/2024
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Al-Aqsa Hospital is facing a massive influx of patients, many civilians arriving with severe burns, shrapnel wounds, fractures, and other traumatic injuries, according to the UN. Gaza’s health ministry says at least 36 people were killed and 115 injured across the enclave in the last 24 hours.”
9716/8/2024
[news.sky.com, accessed 2024]
Who are the four hostages rescued by Israel? “The hostages, who were captured by Hamas from the Nova music festival in October, were named as Noa Argamani, 25, Almog Meir Jan, 21, Andrey Kozlov, 27, and Shlomi Ziv, 40. … At least one Israeli soldier died in the operation to retrieve the group from Gaza, according to Israel, while Hamas says at least 210 Palestinians were killed during attacks in the area around the rescue.”
9726/17/2024
[cbsnews.com, accessed 2024]
“Political tension in Israel over the conduct of the country’s war against Hamas in the Gaza Strip spilled out into public view again Monday. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu disbanded an influential group that had, since Hamas launched its Oct. 7 terrorist attack and sparked the war, helped to set Israel’s war policy.
Netanyahu dissolved the war cabinet, a coalition of political rivals created after the Hamas attack to both sow and show unity at the top level of the Israeli government during the conflict.
That unity collapsed last week when Benny Gantz, Netanyahu’s leading moderate opponent, resigned from his position in the government and the war cabinet over what he had said was a failure to present any plan to govern Gaza following the war. … The shakeup at the top came a day after Israel announced a ‘tactical pause’ in the fighting along a roughly 7.5-mile stretch of road in the Rafah area. “
9736/25/2024
[cnn.con, accessed 2024]
“Israel’s Supreme Court on Tuesday ordered the government to draft ultra-Orthodox Jews into the military, delivering a blow to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu that has the potential to unravel his ruling coalition. The court also ordered the government to withdraw funding from any religious schools, or yeshivas, whose students do not comply with draft notices. … Ultra-Orthodox (or Haredi) Jews have, for all intents and purposes, been exempt from national mandatory military service since Israel’s founding (Palestinian citizens of Israel are also exempt.)”
9746/25/2024
[ohchr.org, accessed 2024]
“A UN Special Committee* appointed by the General Assembly to investigate Israeli practices in Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967, said it was horrified by violations against Palestinians in Israeli custody and levels of impunity for Israeli soldiers engaged in dehumanising, cruel and humiliating behaviour towards Palestinians, including women and children.”
9756/26/2024
[apnews.com, accessed 2024]
“Thousands of tons of food, medicines and other aid piled up on a beach in war-torn Gaza is not reaching those in need because of a dire security situation and lawlessness on the ground, a U.S. aid official said … The remarks are the latest amid international criticism over Israel’s campaign against Hamas as Gaza faces severe and widespread hunger. The eight-month war has largely cut off the flow of food, medicine and basic goods to Gaza, and people there are now totally dependent on aid.”
9766/26/2024
[cnn.com, accessed 2024]
“American officials went through a line-by-line explanation of hundreds of US weapons shipments to Israel in meetings this week with the country’s defense minister in a bid to rebut claims from Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu that President Joe Biden was delaying military assistance.”
9776/26/2024
[timesofisrael.com, accessed 2024]
“Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Wednesday accused Western powers of backing what he charged were Israeli plans to attack Lebanon and ‘spread war’ throughout the region.”
9786/26/2024
[whitehouse.gov, accessed 2024]
“National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan met with Israeli Defense Minister Yoav Gallant today at the White House. They discussed the ongoing efforts to finalize a ceasefire deal together with the release of hostages. Minister Gallant once again confirmed the support of the Israeli government for the deal as outlined by President Biden and endorsed by the UN Security Council, the G7, and countries around the world.
Mr. Sullivan reaffirmed the United States’ ironclad commitment to Israel’s security, including in the face of threats from Iranian-backed terrorist groups such as Lebanese Hezbollah. They discussed ongoing U.S. efforts to support de-escalation and a diplomatic resolution to the ongoing hostilities in Lebanon that would ensure the return of both Israeli and Lebanese families to their homes in the border regions. The two also discussed President Biden’s unprecedented support for Israel since the Hamas attacks of October 7th. Mr. Sullivan reaffirmed President Biden’s commitment to ensure that Israel has all it needs to defend itself militarily and confront its Iranian-backed adversaries.
Mr. Sullivan and Minister Gallant discussed the humanitarian crisis in Gaza, and the need to increase and sustain the flow of humanitarian assistance into Gaza. Mr. Sullivan recognized Minister Gallant’s personal efforts and leadership to support these efforts. Mr. Sullivan also raised the importance of de-escalating tensions in the West Bank, to include the transfer of clearance revenues to the Palestinian Authority without further delay.”
9796/26/2024
[fao.org, accessed 2024]
“The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) raises alarm over high risk of famine across the whole Gaza Strip, as long as conflict continues, and sustained and at-scale humanitarian access is restricted, according to a new report published by the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) global initiative. … The new data reveals that while the increased amount of food deliveries and nutrition services provided to the northern governorates have temporarily alleviated hunger conditions, the situation in the southern governorates deteriorated following renewed hostilities in early May. According to the new IPC report, around 495,000 people or 22 percent of the population are now experiencing catastrophic food insecurity (IPC Phase 5, Catastrophe) while almost entire population – 2.15 million people or 96 percent – is facing Crisis levels of acute food insecurity or higher (IPC Phase 3+).”
9806/27/2024
[timesofisrael.com, accessed 2024]
“Canada announced Thursday sanctions against seven Israelis and five organizations for ‘their violent and destabilizing actions against Palestinian civilians and their property in the West Bank.’ … Canada announced in May for the first time sanctions against Israeli settlers accused of committing acts of violence against Palestinians in the West Bank. The United Kingdom, France, the European Union, and the United States have taken similar measures in recent months. The sanctions are a result of Israel’s allies’ increasing intolerance toward settler violence in the West Bank.”
9816/27/2024
[crisisgroup.org, accessed 2024]
“Palestinian banks may collapse after 1 July, unless Israel renews a waiver that allows Israeli banks to transact with them by that date. The waiver is critical for imports of essential goods into the Palestinian territories, payments of essential services and salaries, and all banking activity.”
9826/27/2024
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“At least 60,000 people displaced from Gaza City on Thursday: UN
Israel forces displaced at least 60,000 people from Gaza City on Thursday, UN spokesperson Stephane Dujarric said on Friday.
‘Humanitarian partners are reporting new displacement … Yesterday, the Israeli military ordered people living in 28 residential blocks in areas east of Gaza City to immediately evacuate … at least 60,000 people were displaced from this area, which spans over seven square kilometres [2.7 square miles]‘, Dujarric told reporters.
He added that an overnight military operation in the area of al-Mawasi of Rafah resulted in many casualties and displacement of at least 5,000 people.”
9836/28/2024
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“US confirms aid pier removed from Gaza due to high seas
The Pentagon says a temporary US aid pier has again been removed from the Gaza coast due to high seas and will be towed to an Israeli port.
It is the third time the pier has been detached from the shore because of weather conditions since its initial installation in mid-May, and the effort is also facing difficulties with distribution of assistance once it reaches Gaza.
‘Due to high sea states expected this weekend, Central Command has removed the temporary pier from its anchored position in Gaza and will tow it back to Ashdod, Israel,’ Deputy Pentagon Press Secretary Sabrina Singh told journalists, referring to the military command responsible for the Middle East.
She said she does not have a date for the pier’s reinstallation, and that ‘the commander will continue to assess the sea states over the weekend’.
The pier was first anchored to the Gaza coast in mid-May, but was damaged by bad weather later in the month and had to be removed for repairs.”
9846/28/2024
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“‘The Israeli policy of settlement construction in the occupied Palestinian areas constitutes a serious violation of international law and undermines efforts towards a two-state solution,’ a Foreign Office spokesperson said in Berlin, German news agency dpa reported. ‘We see as particularly disturbing and cynical’ that the decision was introduced by far-right Finance Minister Bezalel Smotrich as a response to the recognition of Palestine by a number of countries, the spokesman also said. An end to the conflict should be achieved in conjunction with the Palestinian Authority (PA), and not against it, he added.”
9856/28/2024
[timesofisrael.com, accessed 2024]
“A decision by Israel to legalize five West Bank settlement outposts drew widespread criticism on Friday from dovish Israelis and the Palestinian Authority, which accused Israel of continuing a policy of ‘genocide’ against the Palestinian people. The statements came after the security cabinet, at the behest of far-right Finance Minister Bezalel Smotrich, announced the steps and a series of punitive moves against the PA.”
9866/29/2024
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“Hamas says there’s been no progress in ceasefire talks with Israel over the war on Gaza as tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets of Tel Aviv demanding the government save the captives and get a deal done.”
9876/29/2024
[middleeastmonitor.com, accessed 2024]
“The Palestinian Foreign Ministry on Saturday accused Israel of targeting the Christian community in Palestine, particularly in Jerusalem, Anadolu Agency reports.”
9886/29/2024
[apnews.com, accessed 2024]
“Humanitarian workers have started moving tons of aid that piled up at a U.S.-built pier off the Gaza coast to warehouses in the besieged Palestinian territory, the United Nations said Saturday, an important step as Washington considers whether to resume pier operations after yet another pause because of heavy seas. … In just the last week, more than 10 million pounds were moved ashore, according to the U.S. military.”
9896/30/2024
[nytimes.com, accessed 2024]
“Thousands of ultra-Orthodox Jews took to the streets of Jerusalem on Sunday to protest conscription, days after a landmark Israeli Supreme Court ruling ordering the military to begin drafting ultra-Orthodox men who have traditionally been exempt. The Israeli police said in a statement that the protesters threw stones and objects, with one officer lightly injured in the clashes. A police video showed the protesters swarming the car of a government minister. Israeli news media reported that the vehicle belonged to Israel’s housing minister, Yitzhak Goldknopf, the leader of the United Torah Judaism party, who has opposed drafting the ultra-Orthodox.”
9907/1/2024
[apnews.com, accessed 2024]
“The Israeli army ordered a mass evacuation of Palestinians from much of Khan Younis on Monday, a sign that troops are likely to launch a new ground assault into the Gaza Strip’s second-largest city.”
9917/1/2024
[nbcnews.com, accessed 2024]
“One of Gaza’s top doctors accused Israel of abusing Palestinian prisoners hours after he was freed along with dozens of other detainees — a decision that sparked outrage and recriminations among right-wing lawmakers and Israel’s security establishment.”
9927/1/2024
[timesofisrael.com, accessed 2024]
“The High Court of Justice has issued an interim ruling prohibiting the Jordan Valley Regional Council from seizing and holding stray Palestinian livestock, a practice it has engaged in on several occasions in recent months, and for which it has charged the Palestinian owners heavy fees.
Four Palestinian herders of sheep and cattle petitioned the High Court earlier this year asking that it order the regional council to halt the practice, return the herders’ livestock that it continues to hold, and return the money some of them have already paid to get their livestock back.”
9937/2/2024
[cnn.com, accessed 2024]
“The US government employees who have publicly resigned in protest of the Biden administration’s Gaza policies released a joint statement on Tuesday for the first time, stating they ‘stand united in a shared belief that it is our collective responsibility to speak up’ and outlining steps they believe the US government should take. The 12 signatories tendered their resignations at various points over the course of the nearly nine-month conflict between Israel and Hamas, with one resigning as recently as Tuesday. Many of them have spoken out, including to CNN, about their decisions to publicly leave in protest of the administration’s policies. As CNN reported last month, the officials had begun banding together to put pressure on the government to change course.”
9947/3/2024
[government.se, accessed 2024]
Nordic statement calling for release of Palestinian clearance revenues and preservation of correspondent banking services between Israel and the West Bank “The Nordic countries are greatly concerned by the withholding of Palestinian clearance revenues which is exacerbating the strenuous fiscal situation of the Palestinian Authority. … The Nordic countries are committed to supporting the Palestinian Authority and the necessary reforms that it must undertake. The strengthening of legitimate Palestinian institutions is the best way of weakening Hamas and is indispensable to a negotiated two-state solution, which remains the only viable basis for resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.”
9957/6/2024
[apnews.com, accessed 2024]
“Hamas has given its initial approval of a U.S.-backed proposal for a phased cease-fire deal in Gaza, dropping a key demand that Israel commit up front to a complete end to the war, a Hamas official and an Egyptian official said Saturday.
The apparent compromise by the militant group, which controlled Gaza before triggering the war with an Oct. 7 attack on Israel, could deliver the first pause in fighting since November and set the stage for further talks on ending a devastating nine months of fighting. But all sides cautioned that a deal is still not guaranteed.”
9967/7/2024
[aljazeera.com, accessed 2024]
“At least 27 Palestinians have been killed in Israeli strikes across Gaza, marking another grim day as the war on the besieged territory enters its 10th month. One of the attacks since dawn on Sunday targeted a school sheltering displaced people west of Gaza city, killing at least four Palestinians. … the total death toll from the Israeli attacks on Gaza since October 7 has reached 38,153, the territory’s health ministry said on Sunday.”
9977/7/2024
[cbsnews.com, accessed 2024]
“Hamas says that reports that the militant group has dropped a key demand during ongoing discussions for a cease-fire deal are inaccurate, a senior Hamas official told CBS on Sunday.
The official said the militant group – which controlled Gaza before triggering the war with an Oct. 7 attack on Israel – has not dropped the demand that Israel give an up-front commitment for a complete end to the war.
The Hamas official’s remarks come a day after the Associated Press, citing a Hamas and an Egyptian official, reported about the apparent compromise. The AP said that while it could set the stage for further talks to end the devastating nine months of fighting, all sides cautioned that a deal is still not guaranteed.”